"Chemometric Determination of Target Compounds Used to Fingerprint Unweathered Diesel Fuels," Richard B. Gaines, Gregory J. Hall, Glenn S. Frysinger, Wayne R. Gronlund, and Kristy L. Juaire, Environmental Forensics, 7:77-87, 2006.
Abstract: Existing oil fingerprinting standard methods target mostly high-molecular-weight biomarkers for discrimination between samples. Fingerprinting of light petroleum distillates like diesel fuel is problematic with these methods because many of the target analytes are not present. To address this problem, 14 diesel fuel samples from refineries throughout the United States and Canada were analyzed by GC/MS. For each sample, peaks were integrated in 62 different extracted ion chromatograms that represented 22 classes of petroleum constituents. Over 300 individual peak ratios were calculated per sample. Principle components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the number of ratios needed to differentiate the samples. Nine significant peak ratios were identified by PCA. The ratios included compounds in alkylbenzene, alkylphenanthrene, and sesquiterpane petroleum classes. The PCA model removed peak ratios that contributed to instrument replicate variability, which improved differentiation among samples. Real-world spill samples not subjected to evaporative or other weathering processes were used to test the robustness of the model with excellent results. The spill samples were readily seen to be significantly different. Additional studies such as the effects of weathering on these peak ratios are needed before this approach can be evaluated as a useful spill fingerprinting method.
"Nets: A Novel Approach to Thin Sheen Oil Sampling", Kristy L. Plourde; Martha S. Hendrick; Dean E. Greimann; and Thomas R. Reilly, Proceedings of the Second International Oil Spill Research and Development Forum, 1995.
Abstract: Sampling thin oil spill sheens for oil spill identification has presented a significant problem because of the limited volume of oil typically obtained using the traditional grab or decanting jar sample method. TFE-fluorocarbon polymer (such as Teflon) strips, the alternate approach, presented serious handling problems in actual field use. A novel approach to thin sheen oil spill sampling using prototype TFE-fluorocarbon polymer nets is examined in this study. The results of using the prototype nets in actual oil spill cases indicates the nets collect approximately ten times the quantity of oil as the traditional decanting method in thin sheen oil spill sampling applications. The nets were found to collect biogenic material in addition to oil when used in the field. For this reason, a clean up step in the preparation of the samples for analysis is recommended in areas with high biogenic contamination. Laboratory studies indicate that biodegradation affects samples stored in a contaminated environment before sample preparation. This does not appear to be more severe for net samples than for decanted samples. Rapid transportation and processing of all samples, especially those with a limited volume of oil, is recommended. The ease of using the TFE-fluorocarbon polymer nets clearly makes them desirable both for the convenience and safety of field personnel. The improvement in the quality of the data for oil spill identification is a convincing argument for their use for sheen sampling.
"Teflon Nets: A Novel Approach to Thin Film Oil Sampling", Dean E. Greimann; April I. Zohn; Kristy L. Plourde; and Thomas R. Reilly; Proceedings of the 1995 International Oil Spill Conference, 1995, p.519.
Abstract: Thin film oil sampling has presented a significant problem because of the limited volume of oil typically obtained via the traditional sampling techniques, decanting and TFE-fluorocarbon (Teflon) strip absorption, described in ASTM-D4489, the consensus standard governing waterborne oil sampling. A novel approach to the thin film oil sampling, using prototype Teflon mesh nets, was examined in this study. Benchtop experiments were designed to examine material type and mesh size considerations relative to the International Maritime Organization?s oil thickness/appearance scale. The results of field experiments using prototype Teflon nets indicate that the performance of the Teflon nets is far superior to either of the decanting or Teflon strip sampling methods in thin film oil sampling applications.
Abstract: A report entitled "Oil Spill Identification System" was issued October 1974 detailing all aspects of spill identification as conducted by the R&DC Chemistry Branch. Six "first generation" methods have been revised to incorporate the latest techniques developed by the R&DC. These include sampling, sample handling and transmittal, gas chromatography, fluorescence and infrared spectrophotometry, and thin-layer chromatography. These methods are detailed as they will be used by the Coast Guard operational laboratory. In addition, back-up techniques of low temperature luminescence and high pressure liquid chromatography are included. An infrared field manual and the infrared field classification manual are included, along with a technique for simulated weathering of oils and a section on safety precautions.
ASTM Standards, Volume 11.02, Section 11, Water and Environmental Technology, (ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA).
D3325, Standard Practice for Preservation of Waterborne Oil Samples
D3326, Preparation of Samples for Identification of Waterborne Oils
D3328, Standard Test Method for Comparison of Waterborne Petroleum Oils by Gas Chromatography
D3414, Standard Test Method for Comparison of Waterborne Petroleum Oils by Infrared Spectroscopy
D3415, Standard Practice of Identification of Waterborne Petroleum Oils
D4489, Standard Practice for Sampling Waterborne Oils
D5739, Standard Practice for Oil Identification by Gas Chromatography and Positive Ion Impact Low Resolution Mass Spectrometry
"Evolution of the U.S. Coast Guard?s Oil Identification System"; Martha S. Hendrick and Thomas R. Reilly, Proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference, 1993, p. 873.
"Oil In The Environment, Standards For Oil Spill Identification"; Martha S. Hendrick, ASTM Standardization News, April, 1991 p.38.
NORDTEST NT CHEM 001, "Oil Spills at sea"; Identification; 1983, 34 pages (NORDTEST Secretariat, P.O. Box 111, SF-02101 Esbo, Finland).