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Turkey Point Light Station's National Register of Historic Places Nomination


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1. Name of Property

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historic name: Turkey Point Light Station

other names/site number: CE - 195

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2. Location

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street & number: N/A not for publication: N/A

city or town: near North East vicinity X

state: Maryland; code: MD county: Cecil code: 015

zip code: N/A

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3. State/Federal Agency Certification

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As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1986, as amended, I hereby certify that this nomination and request for eligibility determination meet the documentation standards for registering properties in the National Register of Historic Places and meets the procedural and professional requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the property meets the National Register Criteria. I recommend that this property be considered significant locally. (__See continuation sheet for additional comments.)

Captain, U. S. Coast Guard,

Chief, Office of Civil Engineering ________

Signature of certifying official Date

Department of Transportation, U.S. Coast Guard

State or Federal agency and bureau

In my opinion, the property ____ meets ____ does not meet the National Register criteria. (___ See continuation sheet for additional comments.)

_______________________________________ ___________________

Signature of commenting or other official Date

_________________________________________________________________

State or Federal agency and bureau

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4. National Park Service Certification

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I, hereby certify that this property is:

____ entered in the National Register ______________________

___ See continuation sheet.

____ determined eligible for the ______________________

National Register

___ See continuation sheet.

____ determined not eligible for the ______________________

National Register

____ removed from the National Register ______________________

____ other (explain): _________________

__________________________________ ______________________

Signature of Keeper Date of Action

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5. Classification

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Ownership of Property (Check as many boxes as apply)

___ private

___ public-local

___ public-State

X public-Federal

Category of Property (Check only one box)

___ building(s)

___ district

___ site

X structure

___ object

Number of Resources within Property

Contributing Noncontributing

_____ _____ buildings

_____ _____ sites

2 _____ structures

_____ _____ objects

2 0 Total

Number of contributing resources previously listed in the National Register 0

Name of related multiple property listing: Light Stations of the United States

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6. Function or Use

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Historic Functions (Enter categories from instructions)

Cat: transportation Sub: water-related

Current Functions (Enter categories from instructions)

Cat: transportation Sub: water-related

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7. Description

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Architectural Classification (Enter categories from instructions): No Style

Materials (Enter categories from instructions):

foundation: timber/stone crib

roof: iron

walls: brick, stucco

other: lantern: cast iron

Narrative Description (Describe the historic and current condition of the property.)1

Description Summary2

The Turkey Point Light Station consists of an 1833 tapering, conical, stucco-covered, brick tower and a 1913 cement oil house. Other station structures including a keeper's quarters, fog bell tower, boat landing, stable, woodshed, and smokehouse have been destroyed. The station is located on a 100-foot high bluff at the tip of Turkey Point, Elk Neck State Park, confluence of Elk River and Northeast River, near the head of the Chesapeake Bay, near North East, Cecil County, Maryland. Located on a 100-foot high bluff, Turkey Point Lighthouse is one of the highest on Chesapeake Bay and is visible for 13 miles.3 Access to the property is through Elk Neck State Park.

Existing Structures

Tower

The brick tower is 31 1/2 feet from its base to the parapet, 16 feet in diameter at the base, and 9 feet, 8 inches at the top. The walls are 2 1/2 feet thick at the base, and 14 inches at the top. The foundation is made of timber and stone crib. The lantern is made of cast iron and the roof of sheet iron.

The following statement made in 1890 to describe stone masonry towers of New England, built prior to 1840, is appropriate for the Turkey Point Lighthouse tower as well,

At the top of the tower and within the walling of rubble, a dome of brick was turned, with a square opening near the springing-line on one side forming a scuttle entrance to the lantern. On this brick dome, a flat roof composed of slabs of stone 4 inches thick was laid, projecting over the walls of the tower from 6 to 12 inches.4

Reference in several reports and articles state that the central stairs were made of brick or cast iron. This is incorrect as evidenced by visual inspection of the tower interior, an undated but probable 1930s photograph which clearly shows a wooden set of stairs, and a 1938 description of the Turkey Point Light Station. Furthermore, a set of plans of the Turkey Point Lighthouse tower, dated November 1905 from the National Archives, clearly indicate "31 steps. Wood." At some point these wooden steps were removed by the Coast Guard to prevent vandalism and finally the present metal ladders and landings were added by the Coast Guard to gain access to the lantern. The tower floor is poured concrete, which covers the original brick floor.5

Lantern

The lantern is a 9-sided cast-iron lantern surrounded by a gallery and three rows of railings supported by cast-iron balusters. The lantern was apparently painted red but changed to its present black color in the late 1800s. A fourth-order Fresnel lens was replaced with a solar-powered 250mm acrylic lens during automation. The light was originally a fixed white and changed to flashing white in 1947 when the station was automated. The Fresnel lens was stolen after automation.6

When Turkey Point Light was decommissioned in April 2000, the solar powered 250mm acrylic lens was removed from the lantern.

Oil House

The 9- by 7-foot concrete oil house was built in 1913. A 275-gallon metal fuel tank was located adjacent to the oil house on the west side; today only a foundation remains.

Previously Existing Structures

Keeper's Quarters

A 2 1/2-story structure, originally built in 1833 as a 1-story dwelling, was constructed of bond brick. The dwelling measured 34 by 20 feet with attached kitchen. The second-story addition was built of whitewashed board and batten with some gingerbread on the eaves, and a red painted roof of standing seam sheet metal, was added in 1889. A plan of this rebuild, dated March 1889 from the National Archives, shows that the house had a central hall plan with a parlor on one side and living room with fireplace on the other. The kitchen consisted of an addition located off the living room to the back. In 1897, this kitchen addition was rebuilt into the dining room and a kitchen with pantry and porch addition added to it. The second story had four bedrooms though one was very small and better served as a storeroom. The keeper's house, located just to the northeast of the lighthouse tower, was demolished circa 1971 by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources.7

Fog Signal Building

A one-story, 8-feet, 6-inch, square wooden structure was built in 1888 between the water and the light tower near the bluff edge. It was built over a 30-foot-deep dry well with a wood shingle hip roof. It was sided with horizontal clapboards with at least one window with six-over-six double-hung sash. On the waterside, the fog bell was mounted outside from wooden brackets supported by square wooden posts attached to the outside of the tower. The mechanical striking mechanism was housed inside the tower, and its cable and weights were dropped down a dry well.

In 1938, the fog signal was described as consisting of a 1000-pound bell which was struck one stroke every 15 seconds with a Gamewell striker. The frame structure was 9 by 9 feet and 10 feet high with a hip roof. During World War II, the tower was either modified or rebuilt into a two-story watch tower with the fog bell mechanism located on the lower level. A narrow wooden gallery surrounded the upper watch room level with the railing accessed by an outside set of stairs. The fog signal building, located about 125 feet south of the lighthouse tower toward the water, was demolished circa 1971 by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. A depression over the dry well is visible today as are the two westernmost foundation piers.8

Other Structures

A stable, wood shed, and smokehouse, located behind the keeper's quarters and to the north, were rebuilt in 1895. The stable was later converted to a garage; at one point the garage

was attached to a shed at a right angle. A wagon shed was also built sometime before 1887. A white wooden fence with horizontal rails surrounded the station until at least 1925. A reinforced concrete post and wire fence replaced this fence by at least 1928. Most of these fence posts are still extant. Southwest of the tower is a cut off pipe set in a cement foundation, believed to be the flag pole. Scrawled in script into the cement of the flag pole foundation before it hardened is the name "Fannie Salter August 1940" on the west side and "... Salter" on the other.

In 1938, a garage, chicken house, sheep house, and water closet were indicated as being present, all painted white except the sheep house, which was painted gray. A concrete water cistern was located in the basement of the dwelling. A well was present, but the quality of the water was bad. A 2-foot-wide wooden walk connected the fog signal building to the light tower and the dwelling. This was later replaced by cement walks. A set of 137 wooden steps afforded access down the bluff to the water just below the fog signal building. On the west side of the stairs was a wooden incline or chute outfitted with a windlass on top of the bluff and used to haul supplies up and down as needed. At the base of the steps was a seasonal (taken down in winter) walkway of two parallel boards, which extended out into the river 80 feet so the Lighthouse Service tender could offload supplies.9

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8. Statement of Significance

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Applicable National Register Criteria (Mark "x" in one or more boxes for the criteria qualifying the property for National Register listing)

X A Property is associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history.

____ B Property is associated with the lives of persons significant in our past.

X C Property embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction or represents the work of a master, or possesses high artistic values, or represents a significant and distinguishable entity whose components lack individual distinction.

____ D Property has yielded, or is likely to yield information important in prehistory or history.

Criteria Considerations (Mark "X" in all the boxes that apply.)

____ A owned by a religious institution or used for religious purposes

____ B removed from its original location

____ C a birthplace or a grave

____ D a cemetery

____ E a reconstructed building, object, or structure

____ F a commemorative property

____ G less than 50 years of age or achieved significance within the past 50 years

Areas of Significance (Enter categories from instructions):

Maritime History

Transportation

Architecture

Period of Significance: 1833 - 194810

Significant Dates: 1833, 1943, 1948

Significant Person (Complete if Criterion B is marked above): N/A

Cultural Affiliation: N/A

Known Design Source: none

Architect/Builder: John Donohoo

Narrative Statement of Significance (Explain the significance of the property.)

The Turkey Point Light Station is significant for its association with federal governmental efforts to provide an integrated system of navigational aids and to provide for safe maritime transportation in the Chesapeake Bay, a major transportation corridor for commercial traffic from the early nineteenth through twentieth centuries. The Turkey Point Lighthouse is one of the earliest extant lighthouses in the state of Maryland. The lighthouse embodies a distinctive design and method of construction that typified lighthouse construction on the upper Chesapeake Bay during the first half of the nineteenth century. Excluding Cape Henry (164 feet) and Cape Charles (191 feet), Turkey Point Lighthouse, sitting on a 100-foot bluff, has the highest focal plane of any lighthouse on the Chesapeake Bay at 129 feet above the water.

History

The 100-foot-high, buff-colored bluffs at Turkey Point, visible for several miles down the Chesapeake Bay, have served as a landmark and aid to navigation since colonial times.11 With the opening of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal in October 1829, the Lighthouse Board requested a lighthouse for Turkey Point to mark the change in course from the Chesapeake Bay to the Elk River, which leads to the canal. Congress first authorized funding of $5,000

for a lighthouse on Turkey Point on March 3, 1831. A four-acre tract owned by John B. and Juliana Paca was sold for $564 on December 26, 1832, including access to the property from the water.

John Donahoo built the tower and keeper's quarters in 1833 for $4,355. James Geddes supplied the eleven lamps, each with a 15-inch reflector, for $419. When the Fishing Battery Lighthouse was built in 1852 it worked in combination with the Point Concord Lighthouse, Pooles Island Lighthouse, and Turkey Point Lighthouse to guide vessels in the upper Chesapeake Bay. In 1855, a Fresnel lens was installed. The Lighthouse Board requested funding in 1864 to replace "lanterns of an old and exceedingly defective character" for six lighthouses including Turkey Point. Congress authorized the funding of $6,000 on April 7, 1866, and the work was completed in 1867. In the following year, the "constant level or fountain lamp heretofore in use" was replaced with a "Franklin lamp." In 1869, the station was reported as "in good condition." In 1880, the keeper's quarters were "painted inside and out," and otherwise thoroughly repaired. The Lighthouse Board Annual Report for 1885 states, "The stable was rebuilt, and a new platform and windlass were made for the well (presumed to be the water well)."12

A "fog bell room" (tower) was prefabricated at the Lazaretto Lighthouse Depot, Baltimore Harbor, and erected at Turkey Point in April 1888. Because of the height of the bluff and the desire to position the bell as low as possible, the fog signal tower was built over a dry well so that the weights of the mechanical bell striking mechanism could be suspended within the well and not from a high tower. The keeper had to hand wind the weights back up periodically during use in foggy weather. The bell weighed 1,200 pounds and was struck with a 50-pound clapper. The station fencing was "thoroughly repainted and about 180 linear feet of plank walk was added in the same year."13

In 1889, extensive improvements were made on the keeper's quarters including raising the roof one story providing an additional "four habitable rooms," and adding a new front porch. In 1895, wire rope was renewed for the fog bell striking machinery; the stable, wood shed, and smokehouse were rebuilt; and 900 feet of fencing was renewed. In 1897, the "back building used as a kitchen" was torn down and a new one with a porch and pantry built. Two old brick pavements were re-laid and a new one added. A 3-inch-plank walk 240 feet long was also built. In 1899, a "new model fourth-order lamp" was installed, the fog bell hammer adjusted, and a new spring for the striking mechanism installed. Unspecified repairs were made at Turkey Point Lighthouse in 1929 due to hurricane damage.

The property was described in 1930 as consisting of a lighthouse tower valued at $3,000, a fog signal valued at $225, oil house at $500, storehouse at $230, keeper's quarters at $4,400, and the four acres of property valued at $1,000. The oil lamp in the lens was upgraded to an Aladdin incandescent oil vapor lamp in 1933. In 1938 the red sector of the lantern was described as consisting of two pieces of glass, one 17 1/4-inches wide and one 15 5/8-inches wide, both 1/8-inch-thick and 35 1/4-inches long. The boat landing had been discontinued by this time. The station had a radio telephone installed and was electrified in 1942. The station was automated in 1948, shortly after Fannie Salter, the last keeper, retired in 1947. When the lighthouse was automated it was changed from a non-flashing white light to a flashing light.

The keeper's quarters and outbuildings, as well as the tower's wooden spiral staircase were demolished around 1971. In 1993, the Coast Guard received a letter from Dean Rice who was interested in rebuilding the keeper's quarters. He was directed to the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, which now owns the property where the dwelling stood.14

In 1990, trees and brush had grown around the lighthouse partially blocking the visibility of the red sector. Coast Guard and Maryland Department of Natural Resources personnel used a bulldozer, chain saws, chippers, and clippers to clear an eight acre area around the lighthouse.

In 1993, the North East Lion's Club and the Coast Guard painted the Turkey Point Lighthouse tower.15 The tower was repainted in 1999.

Turkey Point Lighthouse was decommissioned in April 2000, and in 2001, the lighthouse was leased to the non-profit Turkey Point Light Station Inc. The non-profit organization is seeking to install a new optic and have it certified by the U.S. Coast Guard as a private aid to navigation.

Keepers at Turkey Point Lighthouse

The first keeper at Turkey Point was Robert C. Lusby who served from August 10, 1833, to August 18, 1841, when John C. Waters took over for just under two years until Robert returned on June 3, 1843. The first of many women keepers was Elizabeth Lusby, Robert's wife who replaced him upon his death and served from May 8, 1844, to at least 1861. Edward Cloman took over on March 13, 1862 until December 30, 1865 when John Crouch was appointed keeper. Mr. Crouch died on July 3, 1873, and his wife Rebecca L. Crouch assumed his duties on October 2, 1873, until she died on July 11, 1895. Their daughter, Georgiana S. Brumfield, who lived at the station since the age of 16, served as keeper from July 26, 1895 until 1919, retiring at age 70 after living 54 years at Turkey Point. She died in June 1934. Caleb Stowe from North Carolina served from 1919 to 1922. C. W. "Harry" Salter served from 1922 until he died in 1925.16

In 1921, Caleb Stowe noticed a disabled powerboat with seven men onboard and towed it with the station's boat to Town Point Wharf. In May 1923, C. W. Salter noticed that a motorboat towing a "Floating Department Store Loaded with Bankrupt Merchandise" valued at $25,000 had become disabled, and the barge was about to be caught in a strong northeast wind. He took the station's boat and towed the barge to safety under the point out of the wind.17

Salter's wife, Fannie May Salter, took over her husband's duties in 1925 thanks to the personally granted authorization of then President Calvin Coolidge. Because of her age, the Civil Service had told Fannie that she could not succeed her husband. However, she appealed to her senator who took it to the White House, which then overruled the Civil Service. She served until August 1947 when she retired at age 65, with 22 years of service as lighthouse keeper, and another 23 years previously assisting her late husband who was keeper at several stations. She stated, "Oh, it was an easy-like chore, but my feet got tired, and climbing the tower has given me fallen arches."18

Before the station was electrified, Fannie would fill and light one of the two lamps at dusk, climb the tower and place the lamp within the lens, then recheck it about one hour later, and again at 10 pm before going to bed. From her bedroom in the keeper's quarters she could see if the light was functioning properly and would immediately awake if the light ever went out. With electricity installed in 1943, she only had to turn on a switch, which lit a 100 watt bulb, which in combination with the lens produced 680 candlepower of light. Once she had to manually strike the fog bell when it suddenly failed as a steamer was heading for the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal in a fog. She rang the bell four times a minute for 55 minutes until the steamer had safely passed. In so doing, she was away from the phone when her son-in-law tried to call and tell her that her daughter had given birth to her granddaughter. The Lighthouse Board in 1928 authorized $25 per month for a laborer to wind the fog bell striking mechanism for Mrs. Salter during months of the year when fog was prevalent. This fee was reduced to $15 per month in 1932. Upon retirement, she moved to another house six miles away, but she was still within sight of the light. She died at age 83 in 1966. Turkey Point Lighthouse had more women lighthouse keepers than any other lighthouse on the Chesapeake Bay.19

It was 14 miles over poor roads to the nearest store; the station families typically raised fruits, vegetables, chickens, turkeys, sheep, and pigs. During World War II, the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal became an important inland shipping corridor due to the threat of submarine warfare off the Atlantic. Because of this increased shipping, the Turkey Point Lighthouse became an especially important aid to navigation, and a detachment of Coast Guard personnel were assigned to the station as a precaution against saboteurs.20

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9. Major Bibliographical References

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This nomination includes heavy use of Ellen Coxe (1979), Geoffrey Henry (1983) and Michael Bourne (1968) National Register nominations.

Adams, H.C. Keepers of the Lights, New York, Greenberg, 1955.

Bureau of Lighthouses. Light List. Atlantic and Gulf Coast 1901. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1901.

Clifford, Mary Louise, and J. Candace Clifford. Women Who Kept The Lights: An Illustrated History of Female Lighthouse Keepers, Cypress Communications, Williamsburg, Virginia, 1993.

de Gast, Robert. The Lighthouses of the Chesapeake. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1973.

Gilbert, Wendy Heister. "Lighthouse: Turkey Point site gives visitors a unique vista," Cecil Whig, February 16, 1990.

Grant, Joseph R. "History of the Turkey Point Lighthouse." The Upper Shoreman, volume 7, number 23, 1968 and Bulletin of the Historical Society of Cecil County, number 32, 1968

Holland, F. Ross, Jr. Great American Lighthouses. John D. Lucas Printing Company, Baltimore, Maryland, 1989.

__________. Maryland Lighthouses of the Chesapeake Bay: An Illustrated History. Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville, Maryland, in press.

Johnson, Arnold B. The Modern Lighthouse Service, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1889.

Smith, Rick. "History Note: Turkey Point Light Guided Sailors Home," no date, no source, copy in Turkey Point Light file, National Maritime Initiative Office.

Smith, Robert O. "Fannie Salter - America's Last Woman Lighthouse Keeper." The Weather Gauge, volume 23, number 2, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland, 1987.

"Turkey Point Light-station, MD." U.S. Coast Guard Records Group 26, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Lighthouse Board. Annual Reports, 1868-1929. Department of Commerce and Labor, 1867-1902.

Previous documentation on file (NPS)

___ preliminary determination of individual listing (36 CFR 67) has been requested.

___ previously listed in the National Register

___ previously determined eligible by the National Register

___ designated a National Historic Landmark

___ recorded by Historic American Buildings Survey # __________

___ recorded by Historic American Engineering Record #

Primary Location of Additional Data

X State Historic Preservation Office

___ Other State agency

X Federal agency

___ Local government

___ University

___ Other

Name of repository: National Archives; Library of Congress; National Maritime Initiative, National Park Service; U.S. Coast Guard Headquarter, Historian's Office, Washington, D.C.

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10. Geographical Data

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Acreage of Property: Less than one acre

USGS quadrangle: Spesutie, MD.

UTM References: Zone Easting Northing

18 413180 4366970

Boundary Description:

The property as indicated on the enclosed map includes only the immediate setting of the resources.

Boundary Justification:

The boundary includes the lighthouse tower and oil house and completely encompasses the structures.

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11. Form Prepared By

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name/title: Ralph E. Eshelman, Maritime Historian

(originally prepared for the Maryland Historical Trust as part of a multiple property nomination for Maryland Lighthouses; reformated in May 1998 by Candace Clifford, NCSHPO consultant to the National Maritime Initiative, as part of a multiple property documentation form for U.S. Coast Guard-owned light stations); edited and revised by Jennifer Perunko, NCSHPO Consultant, National Maritime Initiative, National Park Service, August 2002

organization: Eshelman & Associates

date: January 27, 1996

street & number: 12178 Preston Dr.

city or town: Lusby state: MD zip code: 20657

telephone: 410-326-4877

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Property Owners

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name: Maryland Department of Natural Resources

street & number: Elk Neck State Park, 4395 Turkey Point Road

telephone: (301) 287-5333

city or town: North East state: MD zip code: 21901

name: U.S. Coast Guard, Fifth District

street & number: 431 Crawford Street

city or town: Portsmouth state: VA zip code: 23705-5004

telephone: (757) 398-6351


Notes:

1 The following description and associated photographs were reviewed in August 2002 by a US Coast Guard Aid to Navigation team responsible for the property. A document verifying that the description and associated photographs reflect the current condition of the property is on file with the Office of Civil Engineering, US Coast Guard Headquarters, Washington, DC

2 Description based on field visit to site on January 11, 1995.

3 Description based on field visit to site on January 11, 1995.

4 Arnold B. Johnson, The Modern Lighthouse Service (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1889, p. 25.

5 Margaret Jones, Ranger at Elk Neck State Park, letter to Ralph Eshelman, January 16, 1995 states that Park Manager Richard Bowers claims metal spiral stairs existed at one point in the tower. Turbyville, p. 11 claims the steps were cast-iron. Photograph in the Turkey Point Lighthouse file, Historian's Office, USCG Headquarters, Washington, D.C. and copy in National Maritime Initiative Office files, and Milton Hartig oral communication to Ralph Eshelman, USCG, Curtis Bay Facility, Baltimore, Maryland, February 9, 1995 do not support this statement and instead indicate a wooden staircase. Holland Maryland Lighthouses of the Chesapeake Bay: An Illustrated History, chapter 2, p. 4, states wooden stairs were originally present. Copy of Jones letter is in National Maritime Initiative Office, Turkey Point Light File, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

6Linda Turbyville, Bay Beacons: Lighthouses of the Chesapeake Bay (Eastwind Publishers: Annapolis, 1995), pp. 11-13.

7 The above descriptions are based on photographs in the Turkey Point Lighthouse file of the Historian's Office, USCG Headquarters, and National Maritime Initiative Office, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.; and a letter from Orin M. Bullock, Jr. to Orlando Ridout IV, dated April 10, 1971 a copy of which is in the Maritime Initiative Office.

8 The above descriptions are based on photographs in the Turkey Point Lighthouse file of the Historian's Office, USCG Headquarters, and National Maritime Initiative Office, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.; letter from Orin M. Bullock, Jr. to Orlando Ridout IV, dated April 10, 1971; and letter from Margaret C. Jones to Ralph E. Eshelman January 16, 1995 with copy of two photographs from the Elk Neck State Park files; all in the Maritime Initiative Office Turkey Point Light file. Building plans for the fog signal tower, also in the file, called for four-over-four windows and was sided eight feet by eight feet. Perhaps the structure was not built as per the plans or the nine foot dimension is in error.

9 The above descriptions are based on photographs in the Turkey Point Lighthouse file of the Historian's Office, USCG Headquarters, and National Maritime Initiative Office, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.; interview with Margaret C. Jones, Park Ranger, Elk Neck State Park, by Ralph Eshelman, January 11, 1995; and letter from Jones to Eshelman January 16, 1995 and copies of two photographs from the park files, all in the Maritime Initiative Office Turkey Point Light file.

10 The period of significance is based on the period during which the light station was manned; i.e., from commissioning until automation, 1833 - 1948.

11 Robert O. Smith, "Fannie Salter - America's Last Woman Lighthouse Keeper," The Weather Gauge, volume 23, number 2 (Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland, 1987), p. 18.

12 Lighthouse Board, Annual Report, 1868; 1869; 1880; and 1885; Joseph R. Grant, "History of The Turkey Point Lighthouse," The Upper Shoreman (July, 1968), 7(2):23, 27, 91 (this is the same article as published in the Bulletin of the Historical Society of Cecil County, Number 32 (Bohemia Village, Maryland, May 20, 1968) and "Brief History of the Turkey Point Lighthouse, given at the Winter meeting of the Historical Society of Cecil County, January 20th, 1968 at the Presbyterian Church House, Elkton, Maryland); "Turkey Point light-station, MD." U.S. Coast Guard Records, National Archives, Washington, D.C.; and Holland, "Maryland Lighthouses of the Chesapeake Bay: An Illustrated History," chapter 2, p. 16

13 Lighthouse Board, Annual Report, 1888; "Turkey Point light-station, MD." U.S. Coast Guard Records, National Archives, Washington, D.C.; and Grant, p. 23.

14 "Turkey Point light-station, MD." U.S. Coast Guard Records, National Archives, Washington, D.C.; "Turkey Point Lighthouse National Register of Historic Places Registration Form" dated March 8, 1988; Lighthouse Board, Annual Report, 1888; 1889; 1895; 1897; 1899; and 1929, p. 25; Questionnaire Covering Real Estate Owned by the United States, Turkey Point Light Station, April 7, 1930, Records Group 26, National Archives; "Description of Light Station Turkey Point Smith, March 3, 1938," n. p.; Turbyville, p. 13; USCG Work Order Book from the Lazaretto Lighthouse Depot, archives of the Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland (catalog number CBMM 68-110-21); letter from Orin M. Bullock, Jr. to Orlando Ridout IV, dated April 10, 1971; and letter from J. M. Vaughn to Dean Rice, dated May 18, 1993; copies on file at the National Maritime Initiative Office, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

15 Wendy Heister Gilbert, "Lighthouse: Turkey Point site gives visitors a unique vista," Cecil Whig (February 16, 1990), p. A1; and The Keepers Log (Winter 1993), p. 31.

16 "Turkey Point light-house, Md.;" de Gast, p. 119; Mary Louise Clifford and J. Candace Clifford, Women Who Kept the Lights: An Illustrated History of Female Lighthouse Keepers (Cypress Communications, Williamsburg, Virginia, 1993), pp. 146-149, and 162; Rick Smith, "History Note: Turkey Point Light Guided Sailors Home," no date, no source, copy in Turkey Point Light file, National Maritime Initiative Office; and Grant, p. 27. H.C. Adamson, Keepers of the Lights (New York, Greenberg, 1955) p. 167 asserts incorrectly that Mrs. Brumfield ran the station from "1873 to 1919." The date Stowe began service varies from 1919 to 1920 according to source. Elaine Eff of the Maryland Historical Trust's Office of Cultural Conservation Programs conducted an oral history interview in 1990 with Olga Crouch, daughter of Fannie May Salter. Mrs. Crouch recounts her remembrances of living at the Turkey Point Light. This interview is available from the Maryland Historical Trust office at Crownsville, Maryland. The tape is part of Eff's "Keepers and Kin: Inside the Chesapeake Bay's Lighthouses" oral history project.

17 Lighthouse Board, Annual Report, 1921, p. 60, and 1923, p. 55; and C. W. Salter letter to Superintendent of Lighthouses, Turkey Point Light, May 14, 1923, File 2238-E, Correspondence, Bureau of Lighthouses, 1911-1939, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

18 quote from de Gast, p. 119; Clifford and Clifford, pp. 146-149, and 162.

19 Clifford and Clifford, pp. 146-149, and 162; W. W. Wilson, "Modern Conveniences Boon to Only Woman Lighthouse Keeper in Country," USCG Press Release, undated but copy in Turkey Point Lighthouse file, National Maritime Initiative Office, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.; Grant, pp. 27 and 91; and Smith, pp. 18-20. Grant claims Salter range the fog bell by hand all night while most accounts claim she only rang the fog bell during a 55 minute passage of a steamer. See also New York Times (January 31. 1984), 31:8.

20 Grant, pp. 27 and 91.

21 Wendy Heister Gilbert, "Lighthouse: Turkey Point site gives visitors a unique vista," Cecil Whig (February 16, 1990), p. A1; and The Keepers Log (Winter 1993), p. 31.

NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018

TURKEY POINT LIGHT STATION Page 1

United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form

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