Historic Light Station Information
& Photography

MASSACHUSETTS

 


Note: Much of the following historical information and lists of keepers was provided through the courtesy of Jeremy D'Entremont and his website on New England lighthouses.  Click here to visit his website.

ANNISQUAM HARBOR LIGHT 

CAPE ANN, MASSACHUSETTS; WIGWAM POINT/IPSWICH BAY; WEST OF ROCKPORT, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1801 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1897 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1974 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: STONE 
Construction Materials: BRICK 
Tower Shape: CYLINDRICAL ATTACHED TO GARAGE 
Height:    45-feet
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Characteristics:    White flash every 7.5 seconds
Relationship to Other Structure: ATTACHED 
Original Lens: FIFTH ORDER, FRESNEL
Foghorn:    Automated 

Historical Information:

* 1801: Annisquam is the oldest of four lighthouses to guard Gloucester peninsula.  The keeper’s house, built in 1801 continues to house Coast Guard families.  Rudyard Kipling lived there while writing "Captain’s Courageous" – a great literary tribute to American sailors.
* 1974: The 4th order Fresnel lens and foghorn were automated.

Photographs:

ANNISQUAM HARBOR LIGHTHOUSE


BAKERS ISLAND LIGHT 

Lighthouse Name: Baker’s Island
Location: Baker’s Island/Salem Harbor Approach
Station Established: 1791
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1821
Operational? Yes
Automated? Yes, 1972
Deactivated: n/a
Foundation Materials: Granite
Construction Materials: Granite and concrete
Tower Shape: Conical
Markings/Pattern: White
Relationship to Other Structure: Separate
Original Lens: Fourth Order, Fresnel

Historical Information:

* In 1791 a day marker was established on Baker’s Island. It was replaced by twin light atop the keeper’s dwelling at each end in 1798.
* New towers were built and lit in October 1820. One tower was taller than the other. The lighthouses were nicknamed “Mr. and Mrs.” and “Ma and Pa”.
* A fourth order Fresnel Lens was installed in the taller of the towers in 1855.
* The smaller lighthouse was deactivated and dismantled in 1926.
* The taller tower remains and is an active aid to navigation. It was automated in 1972.

The above was researched and drafted by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Light House Society.

Photographs:

BAKERS ISLAND LIGHT'S TWO TOWERS, CIRCA 1925

BAKERS ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE, CIRCA LATE-1940'S


BASS RIVER LIGHT 

Location: BASS RIVER HARBOR
Station Established: 1855
First Lit: May 1,1855
Operational: Yes
Automated: Yes- Aug. 7, 1989
Deactivated: 1914 – 1989
Foundation Material: Brick
Construction Material: Iron tower on wooden house
Tower Shape: Conical tower on dwelling roof
Markings: White with red trim
Relationship to Other Structures: Integral 
Original Lens:1855
Tower Height:44 feet
Range: – 12 miles
Original Optic: Fifth Order Fresnel Lens 
Present Optic: 300 mm
Characteristics: FlW6s – Flashing white every 6 seconds
First Keeper: Walter Crowell
Current Use: Private aid to navigation during the summer season
Fog Signal: None

Historical Information:

* Bass River Light was built to mark the small harbor at the mouth of Bass River. It guided navigation crossing Nantucket Sound.
* From 1746 to 1866 there was heavy navigation that sailed Nantucket Sound. There was a profitable Fishing and Whaling Industry. The 1st Federal government survey determined that a light was not needed.
* A small private lighthouse or beacon was built on a jetty near West Dennis Beach. It guided local mariners along the mouth of the Bass River. The local mariners paid $.25 a month to buy oil for the lantern. Warren Cromwell tended this lantern. It was placed in the window of his attic. 
* In 1850 a petition was sent to Congress that requested a lighthouse at the Breakwater of the Bass River. So Congress appropriated $4000 to build a lighthouse n the town of West Dennis.
* In 1854 a 1-½ story house white house with a tower and lantern was built. A fifth order fresnel lens was lit in 1855. Warren Crowell became the first light keeper.
* In 1880 the lighthouse determined that the Bass river light was not needed after Stage Harbor Light was established in Chatham. Bass river light was sold. After numerous complaints the government brought back Bass river light and it was relit in 1881. Captain Samuel Adams was appointed the light keeper.
* After the Cape Cod Canal was opened the Bass River light was deactivated in 1914. The canal redirected most of the boat traffic away from Nantucket and towards Buzzard Bay. The lens was removed and replaced by an automated beacon on a skeletal tower at the entrance to the river.
* Bass River light and the property were sold at auction. Harry K. Noyer bought the lighthouse as a summer home. He expanded the main house. After his death the property remained vacant for 5 years.
* In 1938 State Senator Everett Stone bought the property with the lighthouse. The family expanded the house and it became known as the Lighthouse Inn.
* On Aug. 7 1989- National Lighthouse Day the light was relight as a private aid to navigation. It commemorated the 200th anniversary of The Lighthouse Service.
* The light is lit from May 1 thru October 31. It is recognized by the Coast Guard as The West Dennis Light.

Researched and written by Linda Herman, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

PHOTOGRAPH NOT AVAILABLE


BILLINGSGATE ISLAND LIGHT 

Location: On Billingsgate Island, westerly side of and near the entrance to Wellfleet Harbor, westerly side of Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
Station Established: 1822
Operational: No
Automated: No
Deactivated: It was destroyed by a storm in 1915
Foundation: Granite
Construction Materials: Brick
Tower Shape: Square
Markings: Red tower with a black lantern room
Relationship to other structures: – separate
Original Lens: 1822
Tower Height: 40 Feet
Range: –12 miles
Original Optic: 8 Oil Lamps with reflectors Then in the new tower in 1858 a Fourth Order Fresnel Lens was lit.
Present Optic: No longer exists
Characteristics: Fixed white light
Current Use: No longer exists
Fog Signal: None

Historical Information:

* On July 9, 1822 the government purchased 4 acres from Elijah Cobb for $100 and a brick Lighthouse and Winslow Lewis on the southern end of Billingsgate Island built keepers house.
* In 1855 a storm and erosion split the island in half and threatened the lighthouse. A new 39-foot brick house was built on higher ground on the north end of the island. The new light was lit on September 1 1858. It had the fourth order fersnel lens. It was 41 feet above sea level.
* In 1888 a 1000-foot sea wall and bulkhead was built to help with the erosion. Instead of helping it did the opposite. It sped up the erosion.
* In 1915 the last lighthouse keeper removed the Lamp and the lens before abandoning the Lighthouse. The Lighthouse and tower were destroyed by a severe storm on December 26,1915.
* A skeleton tower light was erected to mark the remains of the island. In 1922 the Light was decommissioned and the island became completely submerged by 1942. Today, Billingsgate shoal appears briefly as an island only at low tide. Today lighted buoys mark the island.

Researched and written by Linda Herman, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs (click on light name below to access image): 

BILLINGSGATE ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE


BIRD ISLAND LIGHT 

Location: Sippican Harbor off of Buzzards Bay closest to the Town of Marion.
Station Established –
First Lit: September 1,1889
Operational: Yes
Automated: 1997
Deactivated: 1933 – 1997
Foundation: Surface Rock
Construction Material: Rubble stone
Tower Shape: Conical
Markings: White with black lantern
Relationship to other structures: Separate
Original Lens: 1819
Tower Height: 31 Feet
Range:
Original Optic: 10 Lamps –14-inch reflectors. Then a Fourth Order Fresnel lens installed in 1856
Present Optic: 300 mm
Characteristics: White flash every six seconds
First Keeper: William S. Moore
Current Use: Private aid to navigation
Fog Signal: Pyramidal Bell Tower
National Register Status

Historical Information: 

* On March 3,1819 Congress appropriated $11,500 for 3 separate aids to navigation including a lighthouse on Bird Island. 
* On September 1,1819 Bird Island light went into operation with William Moore as the First Keeper. In December 1819 a severe storm devastated the light station. 
* Bird Island Light was one of the few lighthouses at that time to receive a revolving optic. In 1856 a Fourth Order Fresnel Lens was installed. 
* On September 8, 1869 another severe storm wiped out Bird Island Light. It was repair in 1869. 
* On June 15,1933 Bird Island Light was taken out of service. A hurricane on September 21,1938 hit the island and took all the structures off the island except the tower. 
* In 1940 the island was sold at auction to a private party. Since 1966 the Town of Marion has owned the island. 
* Bird Island light was briefly lit in 1976. In 1994 the Bird Island Preservation Society was formed. Funds were raised to restore the tower. 
* On July 4, 1997 Bird Island Light was relit as a private aid to navigation. The island is cover with shrubs and rocks and is a nesting ground for the endangered Roseate Terns from May through August. 

Researched and written by Linda Herman, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society. 

Photographs:

ORIGINAL BIRD ISLAND LIGHT TOWER

BIRD ISLAND LIGHT TOWER WITH THE NEW LATERN ROOM

BIRD ISLAND LIGHT TOWER WITH THE CURRENT LANTERN ROOM


BISHOPS AND CLERKS LIGHT

Location: On the northerly part of the shoalest [sic] part of Bishop and Clerks Ledge, northerly side of Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts. 
Station Established: 1858 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1858 
Operational: No 
Automated: 1923 
Deactivated: 1928; destroyed in 1952 
Foundation Materials:  
Construction Materials: Granite 
Tower Shape: Cylindrical 
Markings/Pattern: Gray granite tower with lead-colored fog-bell tower attached to the westerly side; black lantern room.
Height: 59-1/2 feet from base of structure to center of lantern. 
Relationship to Other Structure: Integral 
Original Lens: Fourth Order
Characteristic: Flashing white with a flashing red sector between "N. 1/2 W. and NNE. 1/2 E.  Interval between flashes 30 seconds."
Fog Signal: Bell; bell struck by machinery every 15 seconds.

Historical Information:

* 1851 – Spindle day beacon used to mark the shoal.
* 1855 – Lightship LV4 placed on station.
* 1856 – Congress appropriated $20,000 for a lighthouse to be built.
* 1858 – Lighthouse completed.
* 1887 – Red sector added. 150 tons of rip rap were placed around the foundation of the lighthouse.
* 1923 – The lighthouse was automated, a 5th order lens installed and acetylene gas was used to power the light. In addition, the red sector and the fog bell were removed.
* 1928 – The lighthouse was disestablished.
* 1952 – The lighthouse was dynamited by the Coast Guard.

Keepers:

* John Peak (Head Keeper 1858 – 1859, Asst. Keeper 1869)
* W. W. Baker (Head Keeper 1859 – 1860)
* H. Crowell (Asst. Keeper 1859)
* John Bates (Asst. Keeper 1859)
* B. Baxter (Asst. Keeper 1859)
* Nathan Baxter (Asst. Keeper 1859 – 1860)
* D. Taylor (Head Keeper 1860 – 1861)
* William Robbins (Asst. Keeper 1860 – 1861)
* V. Harding (Head Keeper 1861 – 1866)
* Amos Crowell (Asst. Keeper 1861 – 1871)
* George L. Lewis (Head Keeper 1866 – 1873)
* Lawrence Chase (Asst. Keeper 1867)
* Lovell Lewis (Asst. Keeper 1867 – 1869)
* Joseph P. Bearse (Asst. Keeper 1871 – 1883)
* Charles F. Swain (Head Keeper 1873 – 1886)
* Elisha Loring (Asst. Keeper 1874 – 1879)
* William Ramsdell (Asst. Keeper 1879 – 1880) 
* Samuel Adams Peak (2nd Asst. Keeper 1880 – 1881)
* Joel Hamblin (Asst. Keeper 1881)
* Marcus B. Baker (2nd Asst. Keeper 1883 – 1884)
* Franklin Percival (2nd Asst. Keeper 1884, 1st Asst. Keeper 1884 – 1886, Head Keeper 1886 – 1887)
* William A. Dixon (2nd Asst. Keeper 1884 – 1885)
* Amos F. Howes (2nd Asst. Keeper 1885 – 1886)
* George A. Smith (2nd Asst. Keeper 1886, 1st Asst. Keeper 1886 – 1890, Head Keeper 1890 – 1891)
* Benjamin B. Baxter (2nd Asst. Keeper 1886 – 1891, 1st Asst. Keeper 1891 – 1896)
* Joseph H. Bearse (2nd Asst. Keeper 1891 – 1892)
* Charles Hinckley (2nd Asst. Keeper 1881 – 1883, 1st Asst. Keeper 1883 – 1884, Head Keeper 1892 – 1923)
* Halvor M. Jansen (1st Asst. Keeper 1892 – 1898)
* William A. Howland (1st Asst. Keeper 1898 – unknown)
* Winfield S. S. Hooper (2nd Asst. Keeper 1903 – unknown)
* Joshua A. Montcalm (2nd Asst. Keeper 1903 – circa 1908)

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

BISHOPS AND CLERKS LIGHTHOUSE


BORDEN FLATS LIGHT

TAUNTON RIVER/MOUNT HOPE BAY
41° 14' 15" N x 71° 10' 29" W
Station Established: 1881
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1881
Operational? YES
Automated? YES 1963
Deactivated: n/a
Foundation Materials: CAST IRON/CONCRETE CAISSON
Construction Materials: CAST IRON
Tower Shape: CONICAL
Height:    48-feet
Markings/Pattern: WHITE TOP/BLACK BOTTOM "SPARK PLUG"
Characteristics:    flashing white light every 2.5 seconds
Relationship to Other Structure: INTEGRAL
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER, FRESNEL 1881
Present Optic: 250 MM (1977)
Foghorn:    One blast every 10 seconds (1-second blast)

Historical Information:

* The first beacon in the Fall River area was established in 1875 and was discontinued after the present tower was built in 1881. 
* 1880: The site was purchased by the U.S. Government.
* 1881: The present lighthouse was constructed at a cost of $24,000.  When first established, the optic was a kerosene-fed fourth-order Fresnel Lens.
* 1957: The tower was electrified.
* 1963: The light station was fully automated.
* 1977: In 1977 a modern plastic lens replaced the lantern’s classical lens.
* 1983: Fog signal changed to an electric horn.

Photographs:

Borden Flats Light Station; no photo number; original caption: "Borden Flats, Mount Hope bay, Mass. - Lt. Station; 3rd Dist. Photograph [5 B] with Engr's Lett. of 7 Jul. '00 - filed 13 Aug. '00."; 7 July 1900; photographer unknown.


BOSTON HARBOR LIGHT 

Location: LITTLE BREWSTER ISLAND/BOSTON HARBOR 
Station Established: 1716 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1783 
Operational: YES 
Automated: YES 1998 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: GRANITE LEDGE 
Construction Materials: RUBBLE STONE/BRICK LINING 
Tower Shape: CONICAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/5 STEEL BANDS & BLACK TRIM 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: TALLOW CANDLES 1716

Historical Information:

* The first lighthouse established in America was on Little Brewster Island in Boston Harbor and was first lit September 14, 1716. A tonnage tax of 1 penny per ton on all vessels, except coasters, moving in or out of Boston Harbor, paid for maintaining the light.
* The first keeper, George Worthylake, with a salary of £50 a year, also acted as pilot for vessels entering the harbor. In 1718 he and his wife and daughter, with two men, were drowned when the lighthouse boat capsized as they were returning to the island from Boston. Young Benjamin Franklin, then a printer in Boston, wrote a ballad about the incident entitled "Lighthouse Tragedy" and sold it on the streets of Boston.
* The pay of Keeper John Hayes was raised to £70 in 1718 so that he would not be obliged to entertain mariners on the island for extra money which he found "prejudicial to himself as well as to the town of Boston." In 1719 he asked "That a great Gun may be placed on Said Island to answer Ships in a Fogg" and one was supplied that year on which the date 1700 was engraved. The gun is shown on a mezzo-tint engraving of Boston Light made by Burgess in 1729.
* Hayes’ successor in 1734 was Robert Ball who petitioned the general court for preference in piloting vessels into the harbor. The court designated him as "established pilot" of the harbor for the next 3 years. In 1751 the lighthouse was badly damaged by fire so that only the walls remained.
* In 1774 the British took over the island and in 1775 the harbor was blocked and the lighthouse became useless. On July 20, 1775, a small detachment of American troops under Major Voss visited the island and burned the wooden parts of the lighthouse. The British began to repair it under a marine guard, when General Washington dispatched Major Tupper with 300 men in whale-boats on July 31, 1775, who defeated the guard and destroyed the repair work done. They were intercepted on leaving by British small boats and attacked. A direct hit on one of the English boats by an American field piece on Nantasket Head, caused the British to retire to their boats with comparatively heavy losses. Only one American was killed. Major Tupper and his men were commended by General Washington.
* When the British left Boston, March 17, 1776, a number of their ships remained in the harbor. On June 13, 1776, American soldiers landed on Long Island, Boston Harbor, and at Nantasket Hill and opened fire on this fleet who were soon at their mercy. Before sailing away, the British sent a boat ashore at Boston Light and left a time charge which blew up the lighthouse. The top of the old lighthouse was used to supply ladles for American cannon.
* In 1783 the Massachusetts Legislature supplied £1,450 to erect a new lighthouse on the site of the old. This new lighthouse, which still stands, was 75 feet high with walls7 1/2 feet thick at the base, tapering to 2 feet 6 inches at the top. The octagonal lantern was 15 feet high and 8 feet in diameter. Thomas Knox was appointed keeper.
* On June 10, 1790, the Boston Light was ceded to the new Federal Government. In 1811, Jonathan Bruce became keeper. He and his wife witnessed the thrilling encounter between the American ship Chesapeake and the British ship Shannon on June 1, 1813, when Captain Lawrence, of the Chesapeake muttered the immortal words "Don’t give up the ship," as he was being lowered, mortally wounded, through the companionway. Nine minutes later, however, his crew was forced to surrender.
* While Captain Tobias Cook of Cohasset was keeper in 1844 a "Spanish" cigar factory was set up on the island, with young girls brought from Boston to work in it, in an effort to deceive Boston smokers that the cigars manufactured there were imported. This business was soon broken up, however, as a fraud.
* In 1856, the height of the tower was raised to 98 feet and it was listed as a second-order station. On November 2, 1861, the square rigger Maritana, 991 tons, which had sailed from Liverpool 38 days earlier, with Captain Williams, ran into heavy seas in Massachusetts Bay and approached Boston in a blinding snow, driven by a howling southeaster. At 1 o’clock in the morning of Novemher 3, she sighted Boston Light and headed for it, but crashed on Shag Rocks soon after, with passengers and crew ordered into the weather chains after the crew had cut the masts away. The ship broke in two and Captain Williams was crushed to death, but seven persons floated to Shag Rocks atop the pilot house, while five others swam to the ledge, as fragments of the wreckage started coming ashore on both sides of Little Brewster Island. A dory from the pilot boat rescued the survivors from the rocks.  When the Fanny Pike went ashore on Shag Rocks in 1882, Keeper Thomas Bates rowed out and took the crew safely off the ledge.
* In 1893 the Massachusetts Institute of Technology sent 20 or 30 students to live on the island, while experiments were made with various types of foghorns in an endeavor to find one that would penetrate the area known as the "Ghost Walk" 6 or 7 miles to the east.
* On Christmas Day 1909 the five-masted schooner Davis Palmer, heavily loaded with coal, hit Finn’s ledge and went down with all hands.
* When the U. S. S. Alacrity was wrecked on the ice-covered ledges off the island on February 3, 1918, Keeper Jennings and his assistants made four attempts to shoot a rope to the doomed ship but each time the rope parted. Jennings brought the lighthouse dory to the shore, and, assisted by two naval reservists, pushed it over the ice and into the surf. Twenty-four men were clinging to the wreck in perilous positions when he reached it after a dangerous trip. Flinging a line aboard, they began the rescue of the half-frozen sailors, four times running the gantlet of ice, rocks, and surf until all 24 men were saved. For this Jennings received a letter of commendation from Secretary Redfield.
* During World War II the light was extinguished as a security measure, but was again placed in operation July 2, 1945. The station is equipped with a 1,800,000 candlepower light visible for 16 miles.

Photographs:

BOSTON HARBOR LIGHT

More Information & Imagery


BRANT POINT LIGHT 

NANTUCKET ISLAND 
Station Established: 1746 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1901 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1965 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: STONE PILING 
Construction Materials: WOOD 
Tower Shape: CONICAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: FIFTH ORDER, FRESNEL 1901 

Historical Information:

* According to all available records, the lighthouse at Brant Point, located on the south side of Nantucket Harbor, Massachusetts., has been rebuilt seven times in addition to three beacons, since it was originally established in 1746. At a town meeting at Nantucket on January 24, 1746, the sea captains of the island spoke out for a lighthouse and 200 English pounds were voted for the purpose "in supposition that the owners of or others concerned in, shipping will maintain a light therein." However, the expenses of maintaining the light were actually defrayed by the town. This earliest lighthouse was destroyed by fire in 1758.
* At another town meeting held shortly afterward, the rebuilding of the light was agreed to and another light was built in 1759. This stood until 1774. In the March 12, 1774, issue of The Massachusetts Gazette and the Boston PostBoy and Advertiser appears this item: "We hear from Nantucket that on Wednesday the 9th of March Instant (1774) at about 8 o’clock in the Morning, they had a most violent Gust of Wind that perhaps was ever known there, but it lasted only about a Minute. It seemed to come in a narrow Vein, and in its progress blew down. and totally destroyed the Light-House on that Island, besides several Shops, Barns, etc. Had the Gust continued fifteen Minutes it is thought it would not have left more than half the Buildings standing, in the Course that it passed. But we don’t hear of any Persons receiving much hurt, nor much Damage done, except the loss of the Light-House which in every respect is considerable."
* Two weeks later the citizens met and agreed to rebuild the lighthouse for the third time "as High as the former one that blew down lately at the Town’s Expense." As many of the captains from other ports objected to the system of lighthouse dues, the townsmen petitioned the General Court of Massachusetts for permission to levy tonnage dues, and, beginning August 1, 1774, that court ordered that any vessel over 15 tons was subject to a charge of 6 shillings the first time each year it entered or left Nantucket Harbor. In 1783, the lighthouse was burned to the ground in a third disaster.
* The first three lighthouses had been cheaply constructed, but the fourth light, for economy’s sake, was practically nothing but a beacon built even more cheaply. A wooden lantern, with glass windows was hoisted, in 1783, between two spars, with grooves to protect and steady the lantern. This lamp gave a very dim light often compared by mariners to a lightning bug; hence it received the name "bug light." This "bug light" did not prove satisfactory.
* A fifth beaconlike light was substituted for this in 1786. It was merely a frame, fitted at the top for lamps. This outfit was wrecked in a heavy storm in 1788. In August 1789 Congress passed the act transferring the colonial lights to the Federal Government. Some time between 1788 and 1795 another lighthouse was erected on Brant Point. According to a "Memoranda of Cessions by Massachusetts," dated 1795, "The lighthouse on Brant Point with the tenements and land thereto belonging, owned by the State, was ceded to the United States in 1795."
* This building, the sixth to be erected on this site, grew old with the years and was condemned in 1825.  A small tower framework, the seventh light, was built on top of the keeper’s dwelling in 1825. This had eight lamps arranged in a double row, six in the lower series and two in the upper tier.  Behind each of these lamps were 12’ 2-inch reflectors.
* On November 9, 1853, C. A. Ogden, Major, Topographical Engineers, recommended to the Lighthouse Board the erection, as the eighth light, a sixth tower for a second-class lens light at Brant Point, Nantucket, at a cost of $15,000. "The frame of the light tower at Brant Point is so completely rotted as to require reconstruction with the least possible delay," the letter continued, "and believing it to be the wise policy of the Board to make all its future construction permanent, I have asked the above amount for the tower. The dwelling house is much decayed, but has a nearly new roof and weather boarding on it, and may last for some years yet." A similar recommendation to the Board dated October 22, 1853, from Even W. Allen, collector and superintendent, district of Nantucket, reads in part "The whole establishment at Brant Point is very much out of repair, and from the age, material, and construction of the building, I should not consider it good economy to repair it; the interests of the Government and all concerned, seem to demand a more permanent and commodious structure." Accordingly, on August 3, 1854, Congress appropriated $15,000 "for rebuilding the lighthouse at Brandt’s Point, Nantucket, State of Massachusetts." This appropriation was spent, $6,383.85 in 1856 and $8,616.15 in 1857, for the erection of the new tower. The following is a description of this tower. "The foundation of the tower is of concrete cement 2 feet thick, and 18 feet in diameter. The base is of hammered granite, laid in courses 2 feet thick to the height of 12 feet. The interior of the base forms a cistern, where water may be caught for household purposes. The column forming the tower is of brick laid in cement, with an airspace within the walls for ventilation. The lamp is of cast iron, with 12 lights of plate glass. A circular iron stairway winds its spiral way up to a floor of iron, where rests the lantern, 58 feet above the foundation and 47 feet above the ground."
* The lamp was a catadioptric apparatus of the fourth order, commonly called the Fresnel light. The light was first exhibited December 10, 1856.   In 1900 a fixed red lens-lantern beacon light was installed at the extremity of Brant Point, 600 feet from the tower, it having been found necessary to move the light outward, owing to changes in the channel leading into the harbor of Nantucket. This was the ninth light to be located on the Brant Point site.
* In 1901 a new tower, the tenth light and seventh tower, was built at the extremity of the point, and the light exhibited there for the first time on January 31, 1901. This is still in use as a white cylindrical (wooden) tower, with foot bridge to shore on which is a 1300 candlepower, fourth-order electric light, fixed red, 26 feet above the water, visible 10 miles. This is the lowest lighthouse in New England. It is located on the west side of the entrance to Nantucket Harbor. A fog bell completes the equipment at this station.
* A long-standing dispute begun in 1887, over the boundaries of the land constituting the lighthouse site, which belonged to the United States, was finally settled in 1901 when five lots, embracing 5.9 acres, on which three summer dwellings and part of a hotel were located, were sold, as no longer needed for lighthouse purposes and the proceeds paid into the Treasury.

Photographs:

AN EARLY ENGRAVING OF THE BRANT POINT LIGHTHOUSE

1856 BRANT POINT LIGHT TOWER

1901 BRANT POINT LIGHT TOWER


BUTLER FLATS LIGHT

NEW BEDFORD CHANNEL/ACUSHNET RIVER 
Station Established: 1804 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1898 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1978 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: CAST IRON/CONCRETE CAISSON 
Construction Materials: BRICK 
Tower Shape: CONICAL ON CYLINDRICAL BASE 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE TOWER/BLACK BASE & LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: INTEGRAL 
Original Lens: FIFTH ORDER, FRESNEL
Characteristic: Rotating white light every 5 seconds with a 1.2 second flash.  Station is painted with a black caisson and a white conical tower.

Historical Information:

* The station was completed on 30 April 1898.  It was designed and built by F. Hopkinton Smith, a "famous writer-architect-builder."  
* A 1968 "Compilation of Unit History" written by the OIC, BM1 A/N Ronald E. Glass, had a chronological listing of the former Coast Guard OICs, though he did not list their dates of service: "1. Eidson, Fred B., EN1; 2. Nowby, Charles M. BM1; 3. Buotte, Robert A., BM1; 4. Lehl, Richard E., BM1; 5. Grandeau, Patrick A., BM1; 6. Perkins, Daniel L., EN3 A/N; 7. Glass, Ronald E., BM1 A/N."
* A local campaign was begun to save the lighthouse when the Coast Guard determined that the light was no longer required for safe passage into New Bedford, as the recently built hurricane barrier was more effective since it was 1/3 mile closer to the harbor.  A small dyke light was installed there.
* On 22 August 1975, one of the station's two crewmen, SN Henry Sieg, rescued three persons from a capsized 13-foot sailboat.  He used the station's 16-foot boat.
* The station was unmanned and fully automated by April, 1978, and automatic signals and a speed call 7843 encoder/decoder were installed.  The fog signal was moved to the hurricane barrier.  A private, non-profit group that had organized a successful New Bedford marine campaign for the Bicentennial (the Coast Guard Commemorative Exhibit) expressed interest in maintaining the light.
* On 13 July 1978 the Coast Guard discontinued the light (OPERATION ORDER 6-78).
* A Revocable License and Standard Department of Transportation Title VI Assurance was given to the city of New Bedford to operate the light as a private aid to navigation.

Photographs:

BUTLER FLATS LIGHTHOUSE


BUZZARDS BAY ENTRANCE LIGHT 

Location: BUZZARDS BAY, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1961
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1997
Operational? YES
Automated? 1980
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Materials: STEEL PILES FILLED W/CONCRETE
Construction Materials: STEEL
Tower Shape: SKELETAL
Markings/Pattern: RED, W/”BUZZARDS” ON 4-SIDED SUPERSTRUCTURE
Relationship to Other Structure: INTEGRAL
Original Lens: DCB 224

Historical Information:

* The Buzzards Bay Entrance Light was built to replace the Hens & Chicken Lightship (LV-5) and the Vineyard Sound Lightship (LV-10) in 1961. The lightships had been marking the entrance to Buzzards Bay since 1847.
* Due to the sandy shallows building a lighthouse on Buzzards Bay was virtually impossible. Steel piles were driven into the bottom and the light was built on top. 
* Dubbed “Texas Tower”, the shape of the lighthouse borrows heavily from the oil rigs off the Texas Coast. Buzzards Bay was the first such lighthouse built in the US. It is also the first to be built over open water, meaning it was not constructed on land at all. The materials were shipped to the construction site and then assembled.
* The light had a helicopter landing pad on the platform to get supplies to the keepers. This was one of six “Texas Towers” built in the US.
* Deterioration led to the tower being condemned. The tower was replaced in 1996 by a smaller light tower which is a beacon a three-legged skeletal tower. The original light was sunk to extend a natural reef.
* The new tower continues to be an active aid to navigation.

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

BUZZARDS BAY ENTRANCE LIGHT


CAPE ANN (THACHER ISLAND) LIGHTS 

THACHER ISLAND 
Station Established: 1771 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1861 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1979 
Deactivated: n/a; Second Tower: 1932-1988 
Foundation Materials: GRANITE (SURFACE ROCK) 
Construction Materials: CUT GRANITE
Tower Shape: CONICAL
Markings/Pattern: NATURAL (UNPAINTED GRANITE )
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE
Original Lens: FIRST ORDER, FRESNEL 1861

Historical Information:

* Thatcher’s Island was named for the Rev. Anthony Thatcher who, on the night of August 14, 1635, was shipwrecked there. Of the 21 persons on board, including his 4 children, only the minister and his wife were saved.
* On April 22, 1771, the Province of Massachusetts Bay Council authorized the erection of twin lighthouses on Thatcher’s Island. Captain Kirkwood was appointed keeper on December 21, 1771, but, being a Tory, was removed from the island by the Minute Men during the early days of the Revolution. The lights remained dark all during that war.  The lighthouses were among those turned over to the Federal Government under the act of August 7, 1789. From 1792 to 1814 Capt. Joseph Sayward was keeper and he was succeeded by Aaron Wheeler, who served 20 years. One of Wheeler’s tasks was to clear the 300 yards between the towers of large boulders and surface down the smaller ones. A bonus of $100 was paid him for this work. Charles Wheeler, who succeeded him served until 1845. A fog bell was installed in 1853.  In 1859 Congress authorized the rebuilding of the two lighthouse towers and two new towers, of cut granite, were built in 1860-61. Each was 124 feet high and fitted with a Fresnel lens of the first order.
* A Civil War veteran named Bray was appointed keeper in 1865 and on the day before Christmas, that year, took his assistant, who was running a fever, ashore. While he was away a heavy snow storm came up and he could not return. His wife, with two babies, alone on the island, fought her way between snow drifts, to keep the lights in the two towers burning. When her husband returned Christmas morning, it was only because she had, by almost superhuman effort, kept the lights burning that he was able to find his way and not miss the island altogether in the blinding storm. 
* In 1891, Mr. John Farley, assistant keeper, was killed while landing at the station in a heavy sea. In 1919, when President Wilson was returning to the United States on the S. S. America, the great vessel narrowly escaped the rocks on the island in a fog. Only the fog horn, heard at the last minute, enabled the captain to change his course in time.  In 1932 the light on the northern tower was discontinued and that in the southeast tower was electrified by means of a 6,000-foot submarine cable to the mainland.  A gray stone tower, 124 feet above land and 166 feet above water, now houses the 70,000-candlepower first-order electric light, which is visible 19 miles. An air-diaphone fog signal is also located at the station.

PHOTOGRAPH NOT AVAILABLE


CAPE COD (HIGHLAND) LIGHT 

Location: East side of Cape Cod 
Station Established: 1797
Operational: Yes
Automated: 1987
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Material: Natural/Emplaced
Construction Material: Brick
Tower Shape: Conical
Markings: White with black lantern 
Relationship to Other Structures: Attached
Original Lens: First Order Fresnel
Tower Height: 
Present Optic: DCB-224 (1980)
Characteristic: 
Current Use: Active aid to navigation
Fog Signal: 

PHOTOGRAPH NOT AVAILABLE


CAPE POGE (POGUE) LIGHT 

Location: MARTHAS VINEYARD/CHAPPAQUIDDICK ISLAND 
Station Established: 1801 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1893 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1943 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: STONE 
Construction Materials: WOOD SHINGLE 
Tower Shape: CONICAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER, FRESNEL 1857 

Historical Information:

* 1801 – Congress appropriated $2,000 for a lighthouse to be built at Cape Poge. 35’ wooden tower was built.
* 1812 – Winslow Lewis refit the lantern with imitation argand lights.
* 1816 – Keeper’s house enlarged.
* 1825 – Stephen Pleasonton approved buying 4 more acres and moving the keeper’s house back from the shore.
* 1834 – Schooner Hudson grounded at Cape Poge and all passengers and crew were lost.
* 1844 – New octagonal wooden tower built by Winslow Lewis for $1600
* 1857 – 4th order lens added.
* 1880 – Keeper’s house replaced by duplex
* 1893 – New tower built 40’ from old one.
* 1898 – Characteristic changed from fixed white to flashing red and white.
* 1905 – Assistant Keeper’s son drowned.
* 1907 – Tower moved inland.
* 1922 – Tower moved inland again.
* 1943 – Lighthouse automated.
* 1954 – Out buildings, including the keeper’s house, were torn down.
* 1960 – Tower moved back 150’
* 1986 – Tower moved again – this time 500’ inland.
* 1997 – Lantern removed from tower, sandblasted, repainted, glass repaired and placed back on the tower.

Keepers:

* Matthew Mayhew (1801 – 1834)
* Lott Norton (1835 – 1844)
* Aaron Norton (1844 – 1850)
* Edward Worth (1850 – 1853, 1866 - 1882)
* Daniel Smith (1853 – 1859)
* George Ripley Marchant (1859 – 1866)
* Jethro Worth (Asst. Keeper 1867-1882, Head Keeper 1882 – 1883)
* George H. Fisher (1883 – 1898)
* George H. Dolby (1898 – 1902)
* Wallace Eldredge (1902 – 1908)
* J. E. Barrus (1908 – 1919)
* Henry L. Thomas (1919 – 1931)
* Marcus Pieffer (1931 – 1938)
* Joseph H. Dubois (1938 – 1943)

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

1844 CAPE POGE LIGHT TOWER

1893 CAPE POGE LIGHT TOWER


CHATHAM LIGHT 

Location: WEST SIDE OF CHATHAM HARBOR, NEAR CHATHAM, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1808
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1877
Operational? YES
Automated? 1982
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Materials: CONCRETE
Construction Materials: CAST IRON PLATE WITH BRICK LINING
Tower Shape: CONICAL
Markings/Pattern: WHITE WITH BLACK LANTERN
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPERATE
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER FRESNEL LENS

Historical Information:

* In 1808, a second light was built on Cape Cod. To distinguish the new light station from Holland Light, twin towers where built in Chatham. Two 40-feet, wooden, octagonal towers were built. The towers were on wooden skids so they could be moved as the channels shifted. These were “range lights” meaning the lights lined up to mark the safe channel. If ships could not line up the lights, they were in danger of running aground.
* In 1841 the wooden towers were replaced by 40-feet brick towers. In 1857 the towers were fitted with Fourth Order Fresnel Lens. 
* As is the case in most coastal areas, erosion was a huge problem. In just 38 years, the towers were lost to the sea. Luckily the lenses were removed before the towers slid into the sea.
* The third set of twins was built in 1879. They were constructed of iron and brick. The new towers were fitted with the lenses from the previous towers.
* In 1923 the north tower was relocated to Nauset, Massachusetts, ending the 115 years of service of the twins at Chatham. The lantern and Fresnel lens were removed in 1969 and a modern optical was installed. Erosion still threatens the light.
* The light is an active aid to navigation and is not open to the public. The original lens and lantern are on display at the Old Atwood House and Museum of the Chatham Historical Society.

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

1830 CHATHAM LIGHT TWIN TOWERS

1877 CHATHAM LIGHT TOWER WITH THE 1877 LANTERN ROOM (SINGLE TOWER)

1877 CHATHAM LIGHT TOWER WITH THE REPLACEMENT LANTERN ROOM


CLARK'S POINT LIGHT

Location: Fort Taber, entrance to New Bedford Harbor and Acushnet River
Station Established: 1797
First Lit: 1869
Operational: Yes
Automated: Yes- 2001
Deactivated: 1898 - 2001
Foundation Material: Stone
Construction Material: Stone and wood
Tower Shape: Short cylindrical tower with black lantern on rectangular building
Markings: 59’ High white washed stone tower with black lantern
Relationship to Other Structures: Integral
Original Lens: 
Tower Height: 68 ft above sea level
Range: – 9 miles
Original Optic: 
Present Optic: 250 mm acrylic lens
Characteristic: Fixed white
First Keeper: Henry Smith
Current Use: Private active aid to navigation
Fog Signal: None 
National Register Status

Historical Information:

* Clarks Point an ideal location for a navigational aid to help mariners heading to Bedford. Local merchants erected the 1st wooden lighthouse on the point in 1797. Little is known about this structure. This structure burned down approximately 1 year later.
* The Columbian Courier of Oct. 16, 1799 reported that a new lighthouse had been completed and lit for the 1st time on Oct. 12.
* Apparently on Aug. 5 1803 lightning destroyed this lighthouse. The following March Congress approved $2,500 for the rebuilding of the lighthouse.
* An octagonal rubble stone tower 38’ tall was built in 1804.
* In 1818 extensive renovations were done which included an increase of height and the installation of a new octagonal iron lantern.
* In 1857 a fort was built next to the lighthouse. It was named Fort Taber in honor of the city’s mayor. It was officially renamed Fort Rodman in 1898. Most still know it as Fort Taber.
* The high walls of the fort eventually blocked the view of the light. In 1869 a rectangular wooden tower was erected on the northern tower of the fort. The lantern from the old stone tower was relocated to the new structure and went into service on June 15,1869. The old stone tower remained standing until 1906, when it was demolished.
* In 1898 the establishment of Butler Flats Light off shore rendered Clarks Point Light obsolete. The light on the fort was discontinued in April 1898.
* After restoration a relighting ceremony was held on the evening of Friday June 15, 2001- The 132 nd anniversary of the lighthouse first illumination.
Researched and written by Linda Herman, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

CLARK'S POINT LIGHTHOUSE


CLEVELAND EAST LEDGE LIGHT 

Location: BUZZARDS BAY/CLEVELAND LEDGE CHANNEL 
Station Established: 1943 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1943 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1978 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: CONCRETE/ROCK CAISSON 
Construction Materials: REINFORCED CONCRETE 
Tower Shape: CYLINDRICAL ON SQUARE DWELLING 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE TOWER/BROWN CAISSON/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: INTEGRAL 
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER, FRESNEL 1943 

Historical Information:

* Only lighthouse in Massachusetts that was built by the Coast Guard.
* Named after President Grover Cleveland because he used to fish in the area.
* 1940 – State of Massachusetts started construction.
* 1941 – State turned over the construction project to the Federal government (i.e. the Coast Guard).
* 1943 – After being slowed by the onset of WWII, construction of the lighthouse was completed.
* 1944 – Severe hurricane hit the lighthouse, dislodged a glass block skylight which allowed water to flow through the building.
* 1978 – 4th order lens replaced and light was automated.
* 1990 – Coast Guard renovated the structure.

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

CLEVELAND EAST LEDGE LIGHTHOUSE


CUTTYHUNK LIGHT

Location: ELIZABETH ISLANDS, BUZZARDS BAY, NEAR GOSNOLD, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1823
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1891
Operational? NO
Automated? N/A
Deactivated: 1947
Foundation Materials: 
Construction Materials: STONE
Tower Shape: CONICAL
Markings/Pattern: WHITE WITH BLACK LANTERN
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPERATE
Original Lens: FIFTH ORDER FRESNEL LENS

Historical Information:

* In 1823 the first light at Cuttyhunk was built. It was a 25-feet stone tower with a separate keeper’s house. Twice the tower was encased in brick due to poor construction. A Fifth Order Fresnel lens was installed in 1857.
* In 1860 the poorly constructed tower was torn down. A second story was added to the Keeper’s Quarters and the lantern was placed on the roof of the structure.
* Finally 1891 a 45-feet stone tower was erected with a Keeper’s house. The Fifth Order lens was installed in the new tower.
* The Great Atlantic Hurricane of September 15, 1944 heavily damaged the light station. The Coast Guard tore down the structure and replaced it with a light on a skeletal tower. That light is still an active aid to navigation. 

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society. 

Photographs:

1860 Cuttyhunk Light: (75 dpi) ; (300 dpi); No caption/date/photo number; photographer unknown.

1860 Cuttyhunk Light: (75 dpi) ; (300 dpi); Original caption: "CUTTYHUNK LIGHT STATION  FIRST NAVAL DISTRICT (BOSTON) [;] Filed Jul. 19, 1915 [;] CUTTYHUNK LIGHT  175 FT. SW."; Photo dated March, 1915; Photo No. 1436; stamped "LIGHT Jun 24 1915."; photographer unknown.


DEER ISLAND LIGHT

Location: On the southerly end of the spit making out 1/4 mile to the southward from Deer Island, northerly side of the easterly end of President Roads, Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. 
Deer Island Light
Station Established: 1890
First Lit: 1890
Operational: Yes
Automated: 1960
Deactivated: 
Foundation Material: cast iron & Concrete Caisson
Construction Material: Original tower- Cast Iron – Present tower – fiber glass
Tower Shape: Cylindrical
Markings: Brown cylindrical fiberglass tower on cast iron & concrete caisson
Relationship to Other Structures: Integral 
Original Lens:
Tower Height: 51 feet
Range: – White 14 miles, red 10 miles
Original Optic: Fifth Order Fresnel lens 
Present Optic: Automated plastic optic – VRB-25
Characteristics: 
First Keeper: John Farley
Current Use: Active aid to navigation 
Fog Signal: Originally a fog bell- now automated horn with 1 blast every 10 
Seconds

Historical Information:

* In 1832 The Boston Marine Society petitioned Congress for $3,000 for the placement of a stone beacon at Deer Point Island. This marker served as a navigational aid for almost 60 years.
* In 1885 The Lighthouse Board recommended that a light and fog signal was needed because of the narrow & devious passages.
* Deer Island Light was a sparkplug type. It was built for about $50,000 in 1890.
* Original construction consists of a circular foundation- pier supporting a 3 story dwelling with a veranda with boat davits, circular parapet and a cast iron cylinder sunk 4’ into the bottom of the harbor. The lower portion of the cylinder was filled with concrete and it contained water cisterns. The upper part of the foundation was lined with a brick and served as a cellar. Then there was an iron spiral stairway, which led from the cellar to the top floor.
* It was painted a kind of Chocolate brown. It had a fixed white light. It was changed to a 2 second red flash every 30 seconds. It was changed so it wasn’t confused with Boston Light.
* By the 70’s it became apparent the light had deteriorated to the point of being unsafe.
* In 1982 the old iron lighthouse was removed. It took about 3 weeks to do. A fiberglass tower replaced the old landmark. It resembled a matchstick set on the foundation. There were many complaints that the white tower blended in with the background of Deer Island.
* In March of 1983 Great Point Lighthouse on Nantucket was destroyed in a storm. The Coast Guard decided to replace it with a fiberglass tower that they removed from Deer Island.
* A 33’ foot brown fiberglass tower replaced the white one at Deer Island Light.

Researched and written by Linda Herman, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

ORIGINAL DEER ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE CAISSON STRUCTURE

DEER ISLAND LIGHT'S FIRST REPLACEMENT TOWER (1982-1984)


DERBY WHARF LIGHT

Location: On the outer end of Derby Wharf, westerly side of Salem Harbor, Massachusetts. 
Station Established: 1871 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1871 
Operational: Yes 
Automated: 1970s
Deactivated: 1977-1983 
Foundation Materials:  
Construction Materials: Brick 
Tower Shape: Square 
Markings/Pattern: Red tower with black lantern room
Height: 17-1/2 feet from base of structure to center of lantern 
Relationship to Other Structure:  
Original Lens: Fifth Order
Characteristic: Fixed red
Fog Signal: None 

Historical Information:

* 1871 – Lighthouse built at the end of the wharf.
* 1906 – Original 5th order lens replaced by a 4th order lens.
* 1910 – The lighthouse was re-classified as a harbor light. As a result, the 4th order lens was removed and a 6th order lens installed.
* 1970s – The lighthouse was automated.
* 1977 – The lighthouse was deactivated and deeded to the National Park Service.
* 1983 – Friends of Salem Maritime had the light re-lit and declared a private aid to navigation. It has a solar-powered optic.

Keepers: 

* Robert Peele Jr. (1873 - 1885)
* John Lynch (1885 - 1905)
* Shepley Paul Sawyer (1905 - 1908)
* Charles L. Wales (1908 - 1911)
* N. C. Tedford (1911 - 1913)
* William M. Osgood (circa 1913 - 1917) 

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

DERBY WHARF LIGHTHOUSE


DUMPLING ROCK LIGHT

Location: On Dumpling Rock, off Round Hill, northwesterly side of Buzzards Bay, "SSW. 3/8 W." of Clark Point Old Light Tower and New Bedford, Massachusetts. 
Station Established: 1829 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1889 
Operational: Yes 
Automated: 1942 
Deactivated: 1942; replaced by skeleton tower 
Foundation Materials:  
Construction Materials: Wood 
Tower Shape:  
Markings/Pattern: Black lantern room on white frame tower attached to northeasterly corner of white frame dwelling.  White fog-signal house 85 feet and red-brick oil-house 110 feet southerly of lighthouse.
Height: 39-3/4 feet from base of structure to center of lantern. 
Relationship to Other Structure: Attached 
Lens: Fifth Order (as of 1901)
Characteristic: Fixed white with a fixed red sector between "NE. 1/2 N. and NE. 3/4 E." (1901)
Fog Signal: Second-class Daboll trumpet, blasts 3 seconds, silent intervals 12 seconds.  If trumpet be disabled a bell was struck by hand.

Historical Information:

* The appropriation act of May 23, 1828, provided "That the Secretary of the Treasury be empowered to provide by contract, for building a lighthouse on Dumpling Rock, south of the mouth of Aponegansett River, in the State of Massachusetts-$4,000." Of this amount $3,832.47 was spent in 1829 in the construction of a light on a keeper’s dwelling 43 feet above sea level. Ten years after it was built, Lt. Edward W. Carpender, USN, reported: "It is a useful light in guiding vessels into Dartmouth Harbor." "The keeper and his family," the report says, "were in danger of being drowned out, until the Government built a wall around the dwelling. Since then they have lived in safety. Located, as this light is, on a small barren rock, with fewer advantages to the keeper than perhaps any other light in the district, it would seem proper that I should notice the fact of the salary being smaller by $50 than that of many others."
* During the early days of the light the keeper had arranged a signal to his friends whenever a homeward-bound vessel was sighted approaching New Bedford Harbor. An arm on a post near the lighthouse tower was raised and lowered so that the merchants could send their representatives out to the incoming boat to sell their wares.
* In 1890 the old stone dwelling, built in 1828, was torn down and replaced upon the same foundation by a frame dwelling surmounted by a wooden tower with a modern fourth-order lens. For its protection against the sea, a bulkhead 90 feet long was built of hard pine timber heavily bolted to the rock and reinforced by dry masonry from the stones of the old dwelling. 
* A Daboll trumphet, operated by an oil steam engine, was established on October 12, 1897. The following year a telephone line was run through a cable from the mainland at Nonquitt, Mass. 
* In 1905 a short breakwater was built to protect the landings. 
* Keeper Fred Bohm participated in many thrilling rescues during his term as keeper.  The New England hurricane of 1938 damaged the lighthouse seriously. 
* In 1940 the frame house was replaced with a skeleton tower and the light changed to unwatched. 
* The 400 candlepower light can be seen for 8 miles. The light is located on a rock off Round Hill Point.

Photographs:

1829 DUMPLING ROCK TOWER

1889 DUMPLING ROCK TOWER


DUXBURY LIGHT ("BUG LIGHT")

Location: DUXBURY BAY, NEAR DUXBURY, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1871
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1871
Operational? YES
Automated? 1961
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Materials: CAISSON
Construction Materials: CAST IRON
Tower Shape: CONICAL “SPARK PLUG”
Markings/Pattern: WHITE WITH RED BASE
Relationship to Other Structure: INTEGRAL
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER FRESNEL LENS

Historical Information:

* Built in 1871 the Duxbury Pier Light was the first offshore cast iron Caisson lighthouse in the United States. It is also known as “Bug Light” or simply “The Bug”.
* The light has no outside decks when it was first built. The shape resembled a coffee pot.
* Since the light was directly in the water, 100 tons of stones were place around the base to protect the structure. Another 175 tons were added in 1896.
* The light was automated in the 1960’s. It fell victim to vandals and the elements. The Coast Guard planned to demolish the structure. A group of local citizen’s rallied to save the light and created “Project Bug Light”. The Coast Guard began to make repairs to the structure. In the 1990’s the Bug Light project began to fall apart. The Coast Guard again made plans to replace the light. It was saved again by a strong preservation effort. 
* The light is still an active aid to navigation and is not open to the public. 

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

DUXBURY LIGHTHOUSE


EAST CHOP (TELEGRAPH HILL) LIGHT 

Station Established: 1869
First Lit: 1869
Operational: Yes
Automated: Yes- 1933
Deactivated: 
Foundation Material: Concrete
Construction Material: Cast Iron
Tower Shape: Conical 
Markings: White with black Lantern
Relationship to Other Structures: Separate
Original Lens:
Tower Height: 40 feet
Range: – 15 miles
Original Optic: Fourth Order Fresnel lens 
Present Optic: 300 mm
Characteristics: 3 Second green flash with 3 seconds of darkness
First Keeper: Silas Daggett
Current Use: Active aid to navigation in town Park
Fog Signal: None
National Register Status

Historical Information:

* In 1869 Captain Silas Daggett erected a lighthouse at East Chop. It operated privately for 7 years by Silas Daggett. Donations from local merchants paid for the upkeep.
* In 1871 this structure burned but Silas Daggett rebuilt it as a light on top of a house.
* In 1878 the government purchased the land and the lighthouse. The government built a new keeper’s house and the present cast-iron structure. This structure was originally painted white.
* In the 1880’s the color was changed to a reddish-brown color that earned it the name “ The Chocolate Lighthouse “
* In 1934 when the light was automated all the buildings were removed except the lighthouse.
* In 1957 the Coast Guard sold the land surrounding the lighthouse to the town of Oak Bluffs for use as a park.
* In 1984 the original Fresnel lens was replaced by the modern optic.
* In 1988 the formally reddish brown light commonly known as the “ Chocolate Lighthouse” tower was painted white.

Researched and written by Linda Herman, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

EAST CHOP LIGHTHOUSE


EASTERN POINT LIGHT 

EAST SIDE GLOUCESTER HARBOR ENTRANCE 
Station Established: 1832 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1890 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1986 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: STONE 
Construction Materials: BRICK 
Tower Shape: CONICAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN & RED ROOF 
Relationship to Other Structure: ATTACHED 
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER, FRESNEL 1857 

Historical Information:

* For over 100 years the fishermen of Gloucester have been guided back to their home port by a lighthouse on Eastern Point. The present brick tower, painted a gleaming white, and standing on the long rocky point forming the eastern side of the harbor, was built in 1890, replacing, on the same foundation the original tower built in 1832. Before 1832 a still older lighthouse, on Ten-Pound Island well inside of the harbor, had served as an entrance light, but this light was never visible until ships had actually found the entrance, hence the building of a lighthouse on the Eastern Point where it could be seen from far offshore.
* Eastern Point Lighthouse is equipped with a power light and a fog signal. Coast Guardsmen also control the radiobeacon, located on the end of the breakwater.

Photographs:

1832 EASTERN POINT LIGHT TOWER

1890 EASTERN POINT LIGHT TOWER


EDGARTOWN HARBOR LIGHT

CHAPPAQUIDDICK ISLAND/EDGARTOWN HARBOR 
Station Established: 1828 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1875 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1939 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: GRANITE BLOCKS W/FILL 
Construction Materials: CAST IRON 
Tower Shape: CONICAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER, FRESNEL 1856

Historical Information:

* 1828 – Congress appropriated $5500 to build the lighthouse.
* 1830 – Congress approved an additional $2500 for a causeway. In December, 40’ of the walkway was carried away by ice.
* 1836 – The lighthouse was damaged by a bad storm.
* 1850 – Congress appropriated $5,000 for a breakwater with a walkway on top.
* 1856 – The keeper’s house was damaged by fire.
* 1860’s – Multiple repairs and renovations were done, including: rooms re-papered, 2 iron smokestacks raised, sills of the keeper’s house were replaced and the house was whitewashed, the walkway was repaired.
* 1890’s – Fuel and storehouse were built, new fence was built around the pier, new well was dug and an oil house was built.
* 1939 – The Coast Guard demolished the existing buildings and the Essex lighthouse in Ipswich was dismantled, shipped by barge to Edgartown and re-assembled.
* 1985 – Lighthouse was leased to Vineyard Environmental Research Institute.
* 1990 – Plastic lens installed and lighthouse converted to solar power.
* 1994 – Lease transferred to Martha’s Vineyard Historical Society.

Keepers:

* Jeremiah Pease (1828 – 1841, 1843 – 1849)
* Sylvanus Crocker (1841 – 1843, 1849-1853)
* William Vinson (1853 – 1855)
* James Blankenship (1855 – 1861)
* William Vincent (1861 – 1866)
* Zolmond Steward (1866 – 1870)
* Benjamin Huxford (1870 – 1919)
* Joseph H. Barrus (1919 – 1931)
* Henry L. Thomas (1931 – 1938)
* Fred Vidler (1938)

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

1828 EDGARTOWN HARBOR LIGHTHOUSE STRUCTURE

1828 EDGARTOWN HARBOR LIGHTHOUSE STRUCTURE WITH NEW LANTERN ROOM

1939 EDGARTOWN HARBOR CAST-IRON LIGHT TOWER


EGG ROCK LIGHT

Location: NAHANT BAY, NORTH OF BOSTON HARBOR, NEAR NAHANT, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1856
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1897
Operational? NO
Automated? N/A
Deactivated: 1922
Foundation Materials: UNKNOWN
Construction Materials: BRICK TOWER
Tower Shape: SQUARE
Markings/Pattern: WHITE
Relationship to Other Structure: INTEGRAL
Original Lens: FIFTH ORDER FRESNEL 

Historical Information:

* Egg Rock is a three acre island rising 80 feet out of the ocean less than a mile northeast of the town Nahant, Massachusetts. It is said the island resembles a gray whale.
* Congress approved $5,000 for a lighthouse on Egg Rock in 1850 after a schooner went down losing five lives. Unfortunately, the funds were delayed and had to be reappropriated. 
* The Egg Rock Light was built in 1856 and consisted of a lantern atop a stone dwelling. The stone was cut from the island.
* The fifth order lens shown a fixed white light and was first lit on September 15, 1856. In reaction to the wreck of the schooner Shark the light was changed to red. The captain confused Egg Rock Light with Long Island Head Light in Boston Harbor.
* In 1897 the lighthouse was rebuilt after a fire destroyed the original dwelling. A square, stone tower was attached to a dwelling.
* During World War I the light was dimmed because of fears that enemy submarines were in the area.
* The light was automated in 1919 when a gas operated beacon was placed in the light. The light was discontinued in 1922.
* The lighthouse was sold for $160 with the clause that the new owner had to remove the light from the island. The house was separated from the tower. Crews were slowly moving the house down the side of the island when a cable snapped and the house slid into the ocean. The tower was destroyed in 1927.
* The island is a now a bird sanctuary. 

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

1856 EGG ROCK LIGHTHOUSE

1898 EGG ROCK LIGHTHOUSE


FAIRHAVEN BRIDGE [RANGE] LIGHT

NEW BEDFORD, FAIRHAVEN BRIDGE
Station Established: 1888
Year Current Tower First Lit: 1888
Operational? NO
Automated?  n/a
Deactivated:  1891
Foundation Materials:  Mounted on Fairhaven Bridge    
Construction Materials:  Wood
Tower Shape:  
Markings/Pattern:  
Relationship to Other Structure:  
Original Lens:  

Historical Information:

* 1888: Operated a red light that served as a range light in conjunction with the lighthouse on Palmer's Island.
* 1891: Discontinued on 31 March 1891.

[See the Palmer Island Light listing below.]

Photographs:

FAIRHAVEN BRIDGE LIGHT


FALMOUTH INNER LIGHT

Location:  
Station Established:  
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit:  
Operational:  
Automated:  
Deactivated:  
Foundation Materials:  
Construction Materials:  
Tower Shape:  
Markings/Pattern: 
Height:  
Relationship to Other Structure:  
Original Lens: 
Characteristic: 
Fog Signal: 

Photographs:

FALMOUTH INNER LIGHTHOUSE


FORT PICKERING (WINTER ISLAND) LIGHT

Location: WINTER ISLAND/SALEM HARBOR 
Station Established: 1871 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1871 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 
Deactivated: 1897- 
Foundation Materials: CONCRETE 
Construction Materials: CAST IRON/BRICK 
Tower Shape: CYLINDRICAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 

Historical Information:

* Fort Pickering named in honor of Timothy Pickering who served as Quartermaster General, Postmaster General, Secretary of War and Secretary of State under George Washington.
* 1871 – The Lighthouse was first constructed.
* Fort Pickering lighthouse, together with the Derby Wharf light formed range lights to guide ships into Salem harbor.
* 1969 – Lighthouse deactivated and replaced by an offshore buoy.
* 1978 – Blizzard took the door off the tower & deposited it in the water. The door was later salvaged and rehung on the lighthouse.
* 1980s – Fort Pickering Lighthouse Association formed.
* 1983 – Relit as private aid to navigation.
* 1995 – Lighthouse converted to solar power after the power supply from shore was cut off due to damage to the underwater line.
* 1999 – Lantern and ironwork were restored.

Keepers:

* John Harris (1882 – 1919)

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

FORT PICKERING LIGHTHOUSE


GAY HEAD LIGHT

Location: AQUINNAH (GAY HEAD) CLIFFS, WESTERN END OF MARTHA’S VINEYARD, ENTRANCE TO VINEYARD SOUND, NEAR AQUINNAH, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1799
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1856
Operational? YES
Automated? 1960
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Materials: UNKNOWN
Construction Materials: BRICK/SANDSTONE
Tower Shape: CONICAL
Markings/Pattern: RED BRICK W/BLACK LANTERN
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE
Original Lens: FIRST ORDER FRESNEL

Historical Information:

* On November 18, 1799 the first lighthouse at Gay Head went into service. The 47 foot octagonal tower guided traffic by the Gay Head cliffs and the Elizabeth Islands through the Vineyard Sound. Under the water is a natural obstruction called the Devil’s Bridge which makes the passage treacherous. 
* In 1838 the lantern and deck were rebuilt. The tower was lowered three feet. Earlier the tower had been lowered by 14 feet for the light to be seen under the fog.
* The tower was in disrepair and dangerously close to edge of the cliffs. In 1854 construction started on a new tower. The new conical tower was 51 feet tall and would house an enormous first order Fresnel lens.
* Gay Head was listed as one of the most important lighthouses in the US. It was also one of the first to receive a Fresnel lens.
* The extreme dampness on the island was responsible for at least three keepers’ deaths. The lighthouse board built new quarters for the keepers on much higher and dryer ground.
* In 1952, the light was automated. The lens is on display at the Martha’s Vineyard Historical Society Museum in Edgartown, Massachusetts.
* The tower is open to the public during very specific hours. The light remains an active aid to navigation. The rest of the buildings at the station were destroyed.

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

GAY HEAD LIGHTHOUSE


GRAVES (THE) LIGHT 

Location: BOSTON NORTH CHANNEL/MASSACHUSETTS BAY 
Station Established: 1905
First Lit: Sept. 1 1905
Operational: Yes
Automated: Yes- 1976- Converted to Solar Power in 2001
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Material: Granite
Construction Material: Granite Block
Tower Shape: Conical 
Markings: Natural with Black Lantern
Relationship to Other Structures: Separate 
Original Lens: First Order Frensel Lens
Tower Height: 113 feet
Range: – 24 miles
Original Optic: First Order Fresnel lens 
Present Optic: VRB 25- Solar Power 2001
Characteristics: 2 White Flashes every 12 Seconds
First Keeper: Elliot C. Hadley
Current Use: Active aide to Navigation
Fog Signal: Originally Daboll fog trumpet now automated-2 blasts every 2 
Seconds.
National Register Status 

Historical Information: 

* Some think Graves Ledge received its rather ominous name because of tragedies. But not so. It was named for Thomas Graves a prominent, an early Colonial Massachusetts sea trader. 
* John Winthrop- The first governor of Massachusetts named a group of hazardous ledges The Graves for Rear Admiral Thomas Graves in 1653. 
* In 1842 IWP Lewis, Civil Engineer to The US Lighthouse Survey was surprised that there was no lighthouse on The Graves. 
* Later an iron bell buoy was placed rear of the ledges in 1854. 
* In 1907 Congress appropriated $188,000 for a tower on Northeast Grave Rock. The tower’s location was changed to The Graves in 1903 
* Tje style of Graves Light is very similar to Maine’s Ram Ledge Light. They were built around the same time. 
* In early 1948 the Coast Guard took over the operation of the Lighthouse. 
* The original lens is in The Smithsonian Institute in Washington DC. 

Researched and written by Linda Herman, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

GRAVES LIGHTHOUSE


GREAT POINT (NANTUCKET) LIGHT

Location: On Great Point, the northerly extremity of Nantucket Island, southerly side of the easterly end of Nantucket Sound. 
Station Established: 1769  
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1986 (replaced destroyed 1818 tower) 
Operational: Yes 
Automated: 1950s 
Deactivated: 1984; rebuilt 1986 
Foundation Materials:  
Construction Materials: Stone 
Tower Shape: Cylindrical 
Markings/Pattern: White tower with covered way and white framed dwelling, black lantern room, small white oil-house to southward of dwelling
Height: 65-1/2 feet from base of structure to center of lantern 
Relationship to Other Structure: Connected by a covered way 
Original Lens: Third Order
Characteristic: Fixed white with a fixed red sector between "E. 5/8 S. and SE. by E. 1/2" as of 1901
Fog Signal: None

Historical Information:

* In 1770 the town fathers of Nantucket chose a committee to ask the General Court to erect "a lighthouse on the end of Sandy Point of Nantucket."  Later the committee idea was abandoned, however, and the local Nantucket representative in the General Court was instructed to "use his influence in the General Court to get a Light House on our Point according to his own discretion."  This method proved effective, for on February 5, 1784, the General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts passed a resolution providing for the erection of the Great Point Light at Nantucket as soon as possible.  On November 11, 1784, Richard Devens, the commissary general, was granted 1,089 pounds, 15 shillings, and 5 pence in addition to 300 already paid out "for the erecting a lighthouse and small house at Nantucket" (Massachusetts Resolves, 1784, No. 81, Laws of Massachusetts).  The lighthouse was erected that same year. On June 10, 1790, the "lighthouse, land, etc., on Sandy Point, county of Nantucket," was ceded to the United States in accordance with the act of August 7, 1789.
* The keeper in 1812 was Jonathan Coffin. There was no keeper’s dwelling on the point and in order to reach the light each evening the keeper had to make a long journey. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury, accordingly raised his salary to $166.67 per year and preparations were begun to build him a dwelling near the tower.
* In November 1816, however, the lighthouse was entirely destroyed by fire. Some said the fire was purposely set, but no positive proof was ever forthcoming. On March 3, 1817, Congress appropriated $7,500 "for rebuilding the lighthouse at Nantucket, recently destroyed by fire" and $7,385.12 of this was expended in 1818 in erecting the handsome stone tower which still stands today.
* A petition signed by many citizens and shipowners of Nantucket in 1829 called for the removal of Captain Bunker, who was then keeper, because of his intemperate habits, but Stephen Pleasonton, Fifth Auditor of the Treasury, wisely refrained, after an investigation, from taking any action in the matter. The petition had suggested George Swain as a replacement for Bunker and such petitions, circulated by ambitious candidates for a keeper’s job, or by disgruntled and disappointed applicants, were far too numerous to be acted upon without careful consideration of the source and the motive.
* In his report of November 1, 1838, Lt. Edward W. Carpender, USN, noted that the light was in a stone tower 60 feet high and 70 feet above sea level. It consisted of 14 lamps, 3 with 15-, and 11 with 16-inch reflectors, arranged in two circles parallel to each other and to the horizon. The lantern was 8’2 feet high and 9 feet in diameter. The tower and dwelling were connected by a short covered way "which, among these sand hills, where the snow must drift in winter, is a security that the light will be well attended."
* In 1857 Fresnel lenses were installed at Great Point and in 1882 mineral oil was substituted for lard oil. In 1889 a red sector was inserted in the light to cover Cross Rip Shoal and the shoals south of it.
* Between 1863 and 1890 there were 43 shipwrecks within the jurisdiction of Great Point Light. A number of vessels mistook Great Point Light for the Cross Rip Light Ship. The schooner William Jones was wrecked for this reason on the clear moonlit night of April 17, 1864, when together with two other vessels she went ashore on Great Point Rip. All three eventually got off, however, at high tide. Another schooner hit the bar in a heavy gale on October 12, 1865, but the captain was able to get his wife and three children, together with the crew into the vessel’s long boat and row to Great Point Beach, where the keeper had a carriage waiting for him. Arriving at the lighthouse the survivors watched their ship go to pieces shortly afterward. The schooner Leesburg struck Great Point Rip in September 1866, and the crew were rescued by the island steamer. The following month, on October 4, 1866, the brig Storm Castle mistook Great Point Light for Handkerchief Light Ship. The brig was towed into Nantucket Harbor 3 weeks later, after her cargo of lumber had been jettisoned. A sugar and molasses brig struck Great Point Rip the day after Christmas 1866 and was a total loss, though the crew reached shore safely. The same thing happened to another schooner in May 1867, and to one in December 1867. Still nothing was done about the confusion in the lights. Wrecks continued. There were two in 1869, one in 1877, and two in 1878. In 1880 the West Wind hit the east end of Nantucket Bar, 4 1/2 miles from the lighthouse with a cargo of ice. The vessel soon went to pieces, the crew being picked up later.
* In February 1881, the keeper sighted the U. B. Fisk caught in an ice floe. The crew had abandoned ship but were unable to make shore. The keeper waded out into the water, up to his armpits, and threw them a small line. With this he sent them a heavier line which he used to pull their boat ashore, as their schooner was being crushed in the ice pack.
* Other wrecks occurred in 1887, 1889, and in 1890.  It was not until 1889 that the red sector in the Great Point Light was inserted to mark Cross Rip Shoal and the other shoals south of it.  From then on the wrecks were less numerous although in 1915 the Marcus L. Oran was wrecked on the Wasque Shoal and keeper Norton at Great Point helped rescue "13 men, a woman, and a cat."  He was given a life-saving medal for this performance.
* Nantucket (Great Point) Lighthouse is described as a white tower 71 feet above ground and 70 feet above water, visible 14 miles, and located on the point at the north end of Nantucket Island.  It is equipped with a 25,000-candlepower third-order electric light, fixed white, with a 5,000-candlepower red sector which covers Cross Rip and Tuckernuck Shoals.

Photographs:

1818 NANTUCKET LIGHT TOWER

NANTUCKET LIGHT TOWER RUINS AFTER THE MARCH 1984 STORM

NANTUCKET LIGHT'S NEW TOWER, CONSTRUCTED IN 1986


HOSPITAL POINT (RANGE FRONT) LIGHT 

MAIN CHANNEL TO SALEM HARBOR 
Station Established: 1871 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1872 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1947 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: GRANITE 
Construction Materials: BRICK 
Tower Shape: SQUARE PYRAMIDAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: ATTACHED 
Original Lens: THIRD-ONE-HALF ORDER FRESNEL 1872

Photographs:

HOSPITAL POINT FRONT RANGE LIGHT

HOSPITAL POINT REAR RANGE LIGHT


HYANNIS (RANGE REAR) LIGHT

Location: HYANNIS HARBOR 
Station Established: 1849 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1849 
Operational? NO 
Automated? NO 
Deactivated: 1929 
Foundation Materials: NATURAL/EMPLACED 
Construction Materials: BRICK 
Tower Shape: CONICAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: ATTACHED 
Original Lens: OIL LAMP W/REFLECTOR 1849

Historical Information:

* First light at this site was a privately built shack on the beach with a lamp in the window.
* 1848 – Congress approved $2,000 for the conical brick tower which went into service in 1849.
* Circa 1850/51 – An additional $800 was allocated for keeper’s dwelling, which attached to the lighthouse via a covered walkway.
* 1856 – 5th order lens installed.
* 1863 – New cast iron lantern installed.
* 1885 – Front range light added at Old Colony Railroad Wharf.
* 1929 – Lighthouse discontinued, lantern removed.
* 1987 – Private owners fabricated a new, larger lantern.

Keepers: 

* Daniel Snow Hallett (1849-1851)
* James Bearse (1851-1853)
* Almoran Hallett (1853-1861)
* Franklin Baker (1861-1869)
* John Lothrop (1869-1878)
* Alonzo Lothrop (1878-1899)
* John Peak (1899-1915)
* Waldo Leighton (1915-1929) 
Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

HYANNIS FRONT LIGHT

HYANNIS REAR LIGHT WITH BIRDCAGE LANTERN ROOM

HYANNIS REAR LIGHT WITH REPLACEMENT LANTERN ROOM


IPSWICH RANGE LIGHTS

Location: CASTLE NECK, EAST OF ENTRANCE TO IPSWICH RIVER, NEAR IPSWICH, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1838
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1929
Operational? NO
Automated? 1932
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Materials: UNKNOWN
Construction Materials: CAST IRON
Tower Shape: CONICAL
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/DARK ROOF AND LANTERN
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE
Original Lens: UNKNOWN

Historical Information:

* In 1838, two brick 29 foot towers were built on the area now known as Crane Beach. The lights were 542 apart and aligned on a east-west axis. The towers had fixed lights. They were often confused with Plum Island so the western light was given a revolving light.
* Because of the shifting channels, the towers were moved several times in forty years. The front light was replaced with a “shanty-like affair known as “bug light”” sometime before 1867.
* By 1877 the rear tower was cracked beyond repair. It was replaced by a cast iron conical tower. The front light was discontinued and the rear light was automated in 1932. 
* Blowing sand was a problem on the beach. Sometimes the keeper’s could only access the tower through a window. It was decided a skeletal tower would better serve the area. The cast iron tower was floated to Edgartown, Massachusetts in 1939 to replace the lighthouse there that was lost in the 1938 hurricane. The keeper’s house was later destroyed in a fire.
* The skeletal tower is all that remains of the original lighthouse site.

Keepers:

* Ebenezer Pulsifer, took over on February 28, 1843; relieved on April 5, 1847
* Thomas S. Greenwood, April 5, 1847-July 30, 1849
* John I. Philbrook, July 30, 1849-May 3, 1853

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

FIRST IPSWICH REAR-RANGE TOWER

1881 IPSWICH TOWER (PHOTO CIRCA 1925)


LONG ISLAND HEAD LIGHT

Location: NORTHEAST END LONG ISLAND/BOSTON HARBOR
Station Established: 1820
First Lit: Oct. 1819
Operational: Yes - 1918
Automated: Yes- Aug. 7, 1989
Deactivated: 1982 - 1985
Foundation Material: Granite
Construction Material: Brick
Tower Shape: Cylindrical
Markings: White with Black Lantern
Relationship to Other Structures: Separate
Original Lens: A Fixed Light 9 Lamps and One Reflector 
Tower Height: 52 feet
Range: –6 miles
Original Optic: Three and one Half-Order Fresnel Lens 
Present Optic: Solar Power & Modern Plastic Lens
Characteristics: FlW6s – Flashing white every 2.5 Seconds
First Keeper: Jonathan Lawrence
Current Use: Active Aid to Navigation
Fog Signal: None
National Register Status

Historical Information:

* Originally it was referred to as the Inner Harbor Light.
* The island occupied by a state prison hospital, was part of Boston Island Nautical Recreational Area.
* In 1918 a committee of The Boston Marine Society noted a large number of vessels that passed close by Long Island as they entered the harbor. Congress Subsequently appropriated $11,500 for a Lighthouse in 1819.
* In 1843 IWP Lewis- Civil Engineer to the United States Light House Survey reported deterioration of the leaky tower and the lights obstructed Lantern’s room framework.
* Long Island was rebuilt three times after the original construction. It was rebuilt in 1844 by Boston Iron Co. It was 34’ high.
* In 1858 the optics were refitted with a Fourth Order Fresnel Lens exhibiting a fixed white light.
* In 1870 Fort Story was built in the rear of the Lighthouse with a 10 gun battery
* In 1881 a new keeper’s house and cast iron light was built.
* From 1899 to 1939 Fort Story was expanded to update the Coastal Defense System. Because of the fort’s expansion Long Island Head Light had to be relocated to keep it from injury by the firing of the guns 
* In 1901 the current white cylindrical brick Lighthouse was completed.
* 1982- 1985 the Coast Guard decommissioned Long Island Head Light. The tower was refurbished and the light was relit in 1985
* It received a major renovation in the summer of 1998.

Researched and written by Linda Herman, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

LONG ISLAND HEAD LIGHT'S EARLY TOWER

1900 LONG ISLAND HEAD LIGHT TOWER


LONG POINT LIGHT

Location: On Long Point, southwesterly side of the entrance to Provincetown Harbor, Cape Cod Bay, Provincetown Harbor. 
Station Established: 1827 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1875 
Operational: Yes 
Automated: Yes, 1952 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: Natural, emplaced 
Construction Materials: Brick 
Tower Shape: Square 
Markings/Pattern: White with black lantern
Height: 35-1/2 feet above mean high water 
Relationship to Other Structure: Separate 
Original Lens: Fifth order
Characteristic: Fixed white
Fog Signal: Fog bell: bell struck by machinery single and double blows alternately, intervals 30 sec.

Historical Information:

* 1826 – 4 acres purchased for light station. Keeper’s house with lantern on top built for $15,000. Oil house and shed built for an additional $1,000.
* 1827 – Lantern lit for the first time.
* 1845 – Pilings added to stop sand erosion from around the lighthouse.
* 1856 – Oil lamps replaced by 6th order lens.
* 1873 – The Lighthouse Board asked Congress for funds to replace the lighthouse.
* 1874 – Congress approved $13,000 for rebuilding the dwelling and tower and erecting a fog signal.
* 1875 – 5th order lens installed in the new light tower.
* 1927 – The power of the light was reduced to 29,000 candlepower.
* 1933 – The fog signal mechanism broke down. The keeper had to ring the bell by hand for over 9 hours straight.
* 1952 – Lighthouse was automated.
* 1982 – Solar panels and a 300 mm lantern installed.

Keepers: 

* Charles Derby (1826-1849)
* Charles Derby (Jr.?) (1849-1853)
* Jesse Freeman (1853-1855)
* Daniel Smith (1855-1856)
* Hiram Snow (1856-1862)
* Ebenezer Holway (1862-1867)
* E. H. Whelden (1867-1870)
* John Thomas Dunham (1870-1882)
* Herman Smith (1882-1888)
* Samuel S. Smith (1888-1904)
* Charles A. Havender (?) (1904-1905)
* Roscoe Lopaus (1905-?)
* A. G. Haskins (c. early 1930s)
* Thomas L. Chase (c. 1933)
* Charles Cain (c. 1946)

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

Long Point Light, 1827 lighthouse: (75 dpi) ; (300 dpi); Original caption: none; no date/photo number; photographer unknown.

Long Point Light, 1875 lighthouse: (75 dpi) ; (300 dpi); Original caption: "Light Sta. Long Point, Mass"; no date/photo number; photographer unknown (First Coast Guard District Photo).


LOVELLS ISLAND RANGE LIGHTS

Location: Front range light: On the NE'ly side of the N'ly end of Lovells Island, entrance to Boston Harbor, and on the SW'ly prolongation of the axis of the outer section of the channel dredged from Broad Sound to President Roads; 42° 21' 55" N x 70° 55' 49" W.  Rear range light: On the N'ly end of Lovells Island, entrance to Boston Harbor, on the SW'ly prolongation of the axis of the outer section of the channel dredged from Broad Sound to President Roads, and 400 feet 228° (SW 1/4 W) in rear of the front range light; 42° 19' 55" N x 70° 55' 52" W.
Station Established: 1903
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1903
Operational? NO
Automated? N/A
Deactivated: 1939
Foundation Materials: UNKNOWN
Construction Materials: WOODEN
Tower Shape: CONICAL
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPERATE
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER FRESNEL

Historical Information:

* In 1903 two wooden lighthouses were built on Lovell’s Island 400 feet apart. A seven foot wooden walkway connected the two towers. The towers were outfitted with fourth order Fresnel lenses.
* The lights were torn down in 1939 to make room for the expansion of Fort Standish. The oil shed from the station remains today.

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

LOVELLS ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE


MARBLEHEAD LIGHT

Location: MARBLEHEAD NECK/MASSACHUSETTS BAY
Station Established: Oct.10, 1835
First Lit: April 20, 1896
Operational: Yes
Automated: Yes- 1960
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Material: Concrete pile
Construction Material: Cast Iron
Tower Shape: Conical tower on dwelling roof
Markings: Military Brown square cast iron Skeletal & cylinder tower with black 
Lantern 
Relationship to Other Structures: Separate
Original Lens:
Tower Height: 105 feet
Range: – 7 miles
Original Optic: Sixth Order Fresnel lens 
Present Optic: 300 mm
Characteristics: Fixed white until 1922. Changed to a fixed Green in 1938
First Keeper: Ezekiel Darling
Current Use: Active aide to Navigation
Fog Signal: 2 blast every 20 seconds

Historical Information:

* On August 30, 1831 the citizens of Marblehead requested that a lighthouse be erected “ on the point of the Neck at the entrance to the harbor”. 
* Congress appropriated $4,501 for the Lighthouse on June 30, 1834. It was agreed that on the northern tip of Marblehead Neck was the most suitable location. The lighthouse was constructed and put into operation on Oct. 10, 1835
* A 23’ white tower and keepers cottage was attached by a covered walkway were built in the rear of a small fort.
* Because of all the cottages that were built on the island and around the tower. The houses obscured the tower and it could not be seen at sea.
* In 1893 a light was hoisted on the top of a tall most rear of the lighthouse. This bought time for a taller Lighthouse to be built.
* In 1893 the annual report of the Lighthouse Board made a case for a new, taller tower. An appropriation of $45,000 was requested for the construction of a brick tower of 100 feet high.
* Funds were appropriated and a contract was awarded in June 1895 for the building of a new lighthouse. But it was not to be a brick lighthouse. Instead a 105 foot cast iron skeleton was erected at a cost of $8,786.
* From 1895 –1896 the present 105 ‘ high cast iron skeletal tower with a Black lantern room was built.
* This light was lit April 20; 1896- it was a fixed white light. 
* In 1933 the lights characteristics were changed to a fixed red. And now it’s currently a fixed green.
* In 1960 Marblehead light was automated and the keepers house was demolished.
* In 1993 the Lighthouse was sandblasted and repainted military brown.

Researched and written by Linda Herman, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

1838 MARBLEHEAD LIGHT TOWER

1896 MARBLEHEAD LIGHT TOWER


MAYO BEACH LIGHT

Location: On Mayo Beach, at the head of Wellfleet Harbor, westerly side of Cape Cod. 
Station Established: 1838 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1881 
Operational: No 
Automated: n/a 
Deactivated: 1922 
Foundation Materials:  
Construction Materials: Cast iron 
Tower Shape: Cylindrical 
Markings/Pattern: Brown with black lantern room; white dwelling; red brick oil-house
Height: 25 feet from base of structure to center of tower 
Relationship to Other Structure: Separate 
Original Lens: Refl'r.
Characteristic: Fixed white
Fog Signal: None

Historical Information:

* 1837 – 1838 – Keeper’s house with integral tower built for $2819.18
* 1838-1842 – Three shipwrecks occurred in the vicinity of the light station. The most notable was the brig Diligence.
* 1856 – 1857 – Fresnel lens and new lamps installed.
* 1868 – Minor repairs made to the lighthouse.
* 1878 – The Lighthouse Board made a recommendation to Congress that the lighthouse be rebuilt.
* 1880 – 1881 – Integral lighthouse replaced by larger house with a separate tower. The old structures impeded the visibility of the light, consequently they were razed.
* 1898 – A major storm carried away the plank bulkheads and soil around the house.
* 1907 – Oil house built.
* 1922 – Light station was disestablished.
* Circa 1939 – The tower was razed.
Keepers: 
* Joseph Holbrook (1838-1865)
* William Atwood (1865-1876)
* Sarah Atwood (1876-1891)
* James Smith (1891-?)
* Charles Turner (c. 1890s-1922) 

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

MAYO BEACH LIGHTHOUSE


MINOTS LEDGE LIGHT 

COHASSET ROCKS 
Station Established: 1850 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1860 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1947 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: STONE LEDGE 
Construction Materials: GRANITE 
Tower Shape: CONICAL 
Markings/Pattern: NATURAL 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: THIRD ORDER, FRESNEL 1860 

Historical Information:

* Minots Ledge is one of the "Cohasset Rocks which had been the scene of countless wrecks since earliest times.  Between 1832 and 1841 there were 40 wrecks on this and neighboring reefs.  Between 1817 and 1847, it was estimated that 40 lives and $364,000 in property had been lost in shipwrecks in the vicinity of Minots Ledge, off Cohasset, Mass.
* In 1843, Inspector I. W. P. Lewis, of the Lighthouse Service, emphasized the great need for a lighthouse on Minots Ledge and his judgment was sustained by Capt. William H. Swift, of the United States Topographical Bureau, who recommended an iron-pile lighthouse as offering less resistance to the waves than a stone tower.
* The ledge was barely 20 feet wide and was exposed at low tide, being dry only 2 or 3 hours a day. On this narrow rock construction was begun in the spring of 1847 of a 75-foot open-work iron light structure. The men could only work on very calm days when the tide was at its ebb. The work was conducted from a schooner which remained near the ledge, unless the sea was rough, with the workmen sleeping on board. If a storm threatened, the schooner put into Cohasset Harbor until it was over.
* Nine holes were drillied into the solid rock, each 12 inches wide and 5 feet deep. Eight were placed in a circle, 25 feet in diameter, with the ninth in the center. Iron piling, 10 inches in diameter were then cemented into each hole. Four men worked in 20-minute shifts at the drilling from a triangle, set on heavy spars, which supported a platform high above the ledge, on which the drilling machinery was installed.
* All the apparatus was swept from the rock by two different storms in the summer of 1847. Workmen were swept into the sea several times, but none was drowned. Work had to be stopped for the winter in October 1847 and begun again in the spring of 1848, but by September of that year the nine holes had been drilled and the nine iron piles placed. The outer piles started toward the center to a 14-foot circumference, 38 feet above the uneven surface of the ledge. These were braced horizontally by iron rods at 19-foot intervals. Braces planned to strengthen the lower part of the tower were omitted on the theory that they would lessen rather than increase the over-all security of the edifice. However, it was where these braces were planned to go, that the structure actually broke off later.
* A cast-iron spider, or capping, weighing 5 tons was secured to the top of this piling. The keeper’s quarters were erected on top of this. Finally a 16-sided lantern room at the very top, housed a Fresnel lantern, with 15 reflectors. The light, a fixed beacon with an arc of 2100, was first lighted January 1, 1850.
* The first keeper, Isaac Dunham, was confident the light structure was not safe and wrote Washington requesting that it be strengthened. When no action resulted he resigned on October 7, 1850.  Capt. John W. Bennett, who succeeded him openly scoffed at his predecessor’s fears. He hired new assistants including an Englishman named Joseph Wilson and a Portuguese named Joseph Antoine. Two keepers remained at the light at all times.
* The braces of the structure were soon showing signs of strain, however, and were constantly having to be removed, taken to the mainland and strengthened and straightened. A terrific northeast storm a few weeks after he took charge, changed Bennett’s mind and he officially reported the tower as in danger.  A committee, delegated to investigate, arrived during a perfectly calm sea and returned to Boston, deciding nothing should be done.
* On March 16, 1851, during another terrible storm, the keepers deciding the lantern room was unsafe, retreated down into the store room, where they cowered for 4 days and nights, only occasionally climbing to the lantern to repair some damage done by the storm. The violent pitching and swaying of the tower almost knocked them off the rungs of the ladder, when they did.  A relatively calm spell followed during which the braces were tightened.
* Then easterly winds began blowing around April 8, 1851. Bennett departed for the mainland 3 days later and this was the last time he saw his two assistants alive. When he sought to return next day, too heavy a sea was running at Minots Ledge to permit the attempt. The storm increased in fury and, by the 16th, was causing considerable damage ashore. At Minots Ledge, the two assistant keepers kept the bell ringing and the lamps burning, but just before midnight on the 16th they cast a bottle adrift containing a message for the outside world in case they failed to survive. The high tide at midnight sent wave after wave through the upper framework of the weakened structure. What actually happened then will never be known. Probably about 11 p.m. the central support snapped off completely, leaving the top-heavy 30-ton lantern tower held only by the outside piling. Then just before 1 a.m. on April 17, 1851, the great Minots Ledge Lighthouse finally slid over toward the sea. One by one the eight iron pilings broke until only three remained. The keepers, probably realizing that the end was near, began pounding furiously on the lighthouse bell. This was heard by residents of the Glades. With the tower bent over, the remaining supports now gave way and the great tower plunged into the ocean.
* The body of Joseph Antoine was washed ashore later at Nantasket.  Joseph Wilson managed to reach Gull Rock, probably mistaking it for the mainland. Here he apparently died of exhaustion and exposure.
* Between 1851 and 1860 Minots Ledge was guarded by a lightship. Plans for a new stone edifice were meanwhile drawn up for the Lighthouse Board by Gen. Joseph B. Totten; model makers built the proposed new structure in miniature; the same location was decided upon; and Barton S. Alexander, of the United States Engineers, startedto work on its construction in April 1855.
* The ledge had to be cut down to receive the foundation stones and space was not available for a regular cofferdam. In June the old stumps of the first tower were removed. Meanwhile cutting and assembling of the granite was done on Government Island, near Cohasset. Seven granite blocks were to form the foundation. Permanent iron shafts, 20 feet high, were set in eight of the holes in which the old lighthouse piling had been, while the ninth or central hole was left open, to form a cavity for the base circle. Later a well for drinking water was built up from this cavity through the middle of the new tower.
* The framework structure disappeared during a severe storm on January 19, 1857, when the barque New Empire, which later went ashore at White Head, struck the temporary tower and demolished the iron scaffolding. So in the spring of 1857 the work had to be started all over again.
* The first stone was finally laid July 9, 1857. Temporary cofferdams were constructed from sand bags, so that the foundation blocks, laid more than 2 feet under the surface of the lowest tide, could be cemented to the rock face of the ledge. Strap iron between the courses kept the 2-ton stones apart while the cement was hardening.
* The total appropriation of $330,000 was all spent, except a small surplus, in the construction. By the end of 1859, the thirty-second course, 62 feet above low water had been reached, and 377 actual crew working hours had been consumed. The final stone was laid June 29, 1860, the whole granite structure having thus taken 5 years to complete, lacking 1 day. The new lighthouse was finished by mid-August 1860 and the light first exhibited August 22, 1860. The light was not regularly shone, however, until November 15, 1860, when Joshua Wheeler, the new keeper, and two assistants entered upon their duties.
* The new stone tower has withstood every subsequent gale. The strongest waves cause nothing but a strong vibration. On some occasions the seas have actually swept over the top of the 97 foot structure with no more damage than that caused by a few leaky windows or a cracked lamp or two.
* On May 1, 1894, a new flashing lantern was installed, with the characteristic of a one-four-three flash, which lovers on shore soon found contained the same numerical count as the words "I love you."  Minots Ledge has thus become known up and down the coast as the "Lover’s Light." 
* The light was made automatic in 1947. Today its 45,000 candlepower light, 85 feet above water, can be seen for 15 miles.

Photographs:

1850 MINOTS LEDGE LIGHT TOWER

1860 MINOTS LEDGE LIGHT TOWER

Minots Ledge Light Tower, 1861 Coast & Geodetic Survey profile drawing, 1861 (NOAA image)


MONOMOY POINT LIGHT 

Location: SOUTHERN END OF SOUTH MONOMOY ISLAND, NEAR CHATHAM, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1823
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1849
Operational? NO
Automated? N/A
Deactivated: 1923
Foundation Materials: BRICK
Construction Materials: IRON PANELS W/BRICK LINING
Tower Shape: CYLINDRICAL
Markings/Pattern: RED W/BLACK LANTERN
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPERATE
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER FRESNEL
Historical Information:
* The first lighthouse at Monomoy Point was built in 1823. It was a wooden tower and brick lantern room atop a keeper’s house.
* By 1849 the original lighthouse was replaced with a cast iron brick lined tower. This was one of the first cast iron lighthouses in America. It was painted red in 1882. This helped with daylight visibility.
* The Cape Cod Canal opened in 1914. The Monomoy Point Lighthouse was considered expendable at that point. In 1923 the structure passed into private hands.
* In February 1978, a blizzard cut Monomoy Island into two separate islands. South Monomoy is a wildlife refuge. Today the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manage the station in conjunction with a non-profit group interested in restoring the lighthouse. Some restoration took place in 1988 but much more work is needed.
Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

MONOMOY POINT LIGHTHOUSE


NANTUCKET RANGE LIGHTS

Location:  On rising ground, about 1 mile in rear of Brant Point lighthouse, MA
Station Established:  1794
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit:  1869
Operational:  no
Automated:  
Deactivated:  
Foundation Materials:  Sills on posts; of wood - set in ground.
Construction Materials:  wood
Tower Shape:  square base
Markings/Pattern: white
Height:  17’ 9”
Relationship to Other Structure:  separate
Original Lens: 21” reflector
Characteristic: fixed white
Fog Signal: none

Historical Information:

* Circa 1820s, lamp on keeper’s hut was used as the rear range light.
* Nantucket Beacon (Rear Range) formed range with Brant Point light (Front Range) to mark a safe passage into Nantucket Harbor. Rear Range light was repositioned several times as the channel shifted.
* Replaced by the 1908 Nantucket Harbor Range Lights.
Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

NANTUCKET RANGE LIGHTS


NANTUCKET CLIFF LIGHTS

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Photographs:

NANTUCKET CLIFF LIGHTS


NANTUCKET HARBOR RANGE LIGHTS

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Photographs:

NANTUCKET HARBOR RANGE LIGHTS


NAUSET LIGHT

Location: CAPE COD - BOSTON APPROACH 
Station Established: 1838 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1877 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1952 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: CONCRETE (RE-ERECTED 1923) 
Construction Materials: CAST IRON W/BRICK LINING 
Tower Shape: CONICAL 
Markings/Pattern: UPPER RED, LOWER WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER, FRESNEL 1923 

Historical Information:

* 1833 – Boston Marine Society formed a committee to study the need for a lighthouse on the outer portion of Cape Cod. The report recommended building three towers between Highland (Cape Cod Truro) and Chatham (two towers). Congress allocated $10,000 for the project.
* 1837 – Three brick towers (known as the Three Sisters) were built on five acres of land which had been purchased for $150.00.
* 1858 – A 6th order Fresnel lens was installed.
* 1868 – Extensive repairs were made to the Keeper’s house – including ten new window frames, a chimney extension and a new sill. More repairs were made the following year.
* 1873 – The 6th order lens was replaced with a 4th order lens.
* 1892 – The three brick towers had deteriorated and were rebuilt as three wooden towers.
* 1893 – British bark Jason ran aground in a snowstorm near the lighthouses.
* 1895 – Storm porches were added to the three towers.
* 1911 – The center tower was moved back from the edge of the eroding cliff.
* 1918 – The two end towers were sold for the sum of $3.50. They became part of a summer cottage.
* 1923 – The one remaining wooden tower was replaced by one of the two cast iron towers at Chatham. The wooden tower was then sold and used as part of another summer cottage. (This tower was later sold back to the National Park Service (NPS) to be re-united with its “sisters”).
* 1939 – Keeper’s house moved onto new foundation featuring a walk-in cellar.
* 1940/41 – The top half of the tower was painted red for the first time.
* 1955 – Light automated. The characteristic was changed to alternating red and white.
* 1965 – The NPS bought back the two towers that had been sold in 1918.
* 1983 – The additions that had been added to the third tower, by the previous owner, were removed.
* 1984 – Maltese freighter Eldia driven into the beach by hurricane force winds.
* 1990 – NPS moved all three of the wooden towers to their current position in Eastham, MA.
* 1993 – The U.S. Coast Guard proposed decommissioning the lighthouse due to the erosion of the cliff. The Nauset Light Preservation Society (NLPS) was formed.
* 1995 – The NLPS signed a long-term lease for the lighthouse.
* 1996 – The lighthouse was moved back from the edge of the cliff to its current position.
* 1998 – Keeper’s house relocated next to the lighthouse.

Keepers: 

* Michael Collins (1838 - c. 1843, 1861 - 1866)
* Henry Horton (c. 1843)
* B. H. A. Collins (1843 - 1849, 1853 - 1861)
* Joshua Crosby (1849 - 1851)
* Henry Y. Hatch (1851 - 1853)
* Peter Higgins (1866 - 1869)
* George W. Eldredge (assistant 1867)
* John Dunn (assistant 1867)
* Samuel Snow (assistant 1867 - 1868)
* John J. Ryder (assistant 1868 - 1870)
* Nathan A. Gill (Sr.?) (1869 - 1883)
* Herman Gill (assistant 1870 and 1873)
* Nathan A. Gill (Jr.?) (assistant 1873 - 1879)
* Alfred Gill (assistant 1879 - ?)
* Stephen Lewis (1883 - 1914)
* Thomas J. Kelley (1914 - 1918)
* James Yates (1918 - 1919)
* George I. Herbolt (1919 - 1932)
* John Poyner (1932)
* Allison G. Haskins (1932 - 1938)
* Fred S. Vidler (1938 - 1942)
* Eugene L. Coleman (1942 - 1952)  

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

NAUSET LIGHT'S SINGLE TOWER

NAUSET LIGHT'S SINGLE TOWER PAINTED WITH RED & WHITE BANDS


NED'S POINT LIGHT 

Location: ENTRANCE TO MATTAPOISETT BAY, BUZZARD’S BAY NEAR MATTAPOISETT, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1838
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1838
Operational? YES
Automated? 1923
Deactivated: 1951-1963
Foundation Materials: NATURAL/EMPLACED
Construction Materials: STONE
Tower Shape: CONICAL
Markings/Pattern: WHIT WITH BLACK LANTERN
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPERATE
Original Lens: FIFTH ORDER FRESNEL 

Historical Information:

* $5,000 was appropriated in 1837 to build a light at Ned’s Point. The cost of the station was $4,500.
* Ned’s Point Light was first lit in March of 1838. It was built from stone found near the site. The tower boasts a unique architectural aspect. The 32 cantilevered granite steps are embedded in the wall without the use of mortar. 
* The original lantern was “bird caged” style. At some time before 1888 the original lantern was replaced by an Octagonal style one. A fifth order Fresnel lens was installed in 1857. It’s possible the lantern room was changed at that time. The present lantern was installed in 1896.
* In 1888 a wood framed keeper’s house was built on the original foundation as the stone dwelling that was originally built. In 1923 the house was loaded onto a barge and floated across Buzzard’s Bay to Wing’s Neck Light in Bourne, Massachusetts. 
* The light was deactivated in 1952. The land was sold to the town of Mattapoisett which developed it into a park. The light was reactivated in 1963. It remains an active aid to navigation.

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

NED'S POINT LIGHT TOWER WITH BIRDCAGE LANTERN ROOM

NED'S POINT LIGHT TOWER WITH OCTAGONAL LANTERN ROOM


NEWBURYPORT HARBOR (PLUM ISLAND) LIGHT

PLUM ISLAND/IPSWICH BAY 
Station Established: 1788 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1898 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1951 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: CONCRETE (ORIG. WOOD) 
Construction Materials: WOOD 
Tower Shape: CONICAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER, FRESNEL 

Historical Information:

* On November 16, 1787, the Massachusetts Assembly authorized the building of two lighthouses on the north end of "Plumb Island" and the original towers were erected the following year. On June 10, 1790, they were ceded to the newly formed Federal Government.  Because of the shifting sand bars at the mouth of the Merrimac River, these lights have since been moved many times.
* In 1830 the Lady Howard was wrecked in the vicinity, and during the storm of December 22, 1839, the Pocahontas and Richmond Packet both came to grief. The former bound from Cody to Newburyport was swept to destruction on the sand bar off Plum Island and all hands were lost. The latter was driven ashore and began to break up on a point of rocks. Captain Toothaker jumped overboard with a line and reached the rocks, where he made the line fast. Then he signaled his wife to come in on the line, but before she could do so the line snapped and she was lost. The crewmembers were all saved, however.
* Forty-one of the one hundred and thirty vessels that had taken refuge in Newburyport Harbor were damaged in this storm, which struck so suddenly that the keeper of the light, who had left the tower for a few hours for the mainland, was unable to return. That night there was consequently no light at the entrance to the harbor.
* In order to conform to changes in the river channel the "bug" light was removed to a new position in 1864, and, again in 1867, the range light was moved 90 feet to mark a new channel formed by a shifting of the bar. In 1869 the beacon was moved ne-third of a mile northeast. In 1870 a more powerful light was recommended, but in 1874 the towers on Plum Island had to be moved 75 feet southward "owing to the encroachment of the sea." Sand and thatch embankments were erected to protect their foundations in 1876. In 1887 a new stone tower was built for the range light but by 1890 the position of the river channel across the bar had so shifted that the lights no longer served as a guide through it. Meanwhile jetties were being built to better control the shifting channel and in 1898 the rear light tower was rebuilt.
* Today only one white conical tower built in 1788 and rebuilt in 1898 remains on Plum Island. It is 50 feet above water and the 3,000-candlepower, fourth-order electric light is visible for 13 miles.

Photographs:

1793 PLUM ISLAND LIGHT TOWER

1898 PLUM ISLAND LIGHT TOWER


NEWBURYPORT HARBOR RANGE LIGHTS

Location: NEAR MERRIMAC RIVER 
Station Established: 1873 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1873
Operational? NO
Automated? UNK 
Deactivated: 1961 
Foundation Materials: STONE CONCRETE (1964) 
Construction Materials: WOOD & STEEL W/BRICK LINING 
Tower Shape: SQUARE HOURGLASS (REAR RANGE); Front Range: OCTAGONAL ON CONICAL BASE 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE 
Relationship to Other Structure: ATTACHED; Front Range: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: 6th order Fresnel

Historical Information:

* 1873 – Wooden octagonal tower built on Bayley’s Wharf.
* 1950s – Iron lantern on Front Range replaced by wooden shingled lantern.
* 1961 – Lights discontinued and Rear Range sold into private ownership.
* 1964 – Front Range moved to local Coast Guard station.
* 1990 – Front Range changed to round white tower with red lantern.
Keepers: 
* George W. Stickney (1873 - 1886)
* Matthew F. Barrett (1886-1889 and 1893-1908)
* Edwin F. Hunt (1889-1893)
* Bernard W. Barrett (1908-?) 

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

NEWBURYPORT HARBOR RANGE LIGHTS


NOBSKA POINT LIGHT 

Location: EAST ENTRANCE TO WOODS HOLE HARBOR NEAR FALMOUTH, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1829
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1876
Operational? YES
Automated? 1985
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Materials: NATURAL/EMPLACED
Construction Materials: IRON WITH BRICK LINING
Tower Shape: CYLINDRICAL
Markings/Pattern: WHITE WITH BLACK LANTERN
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPERATE
Original Lens: FIFTH ORDER FRESNEL

Historical Information:

* Built in 1828 the original lighthouse at Nobska Point was an octagonal lantern atop a keeper’s house. The lantern was a strain on the building.
* By 1876 a new lighthouse was needed. A 40 foot cast iron tower was built on the site. A fifth order Fresnel lens was installed. 
* The sections of the tower were cast in Chelsea, Massachusetts and shipped to Woods Hole Harbor in four sections. The tower was painted a reddish-brown color for use as a day marker. A Victorian keeper’s dwelling was built at this time.
* In 1888 a fourth order lens was installed to replace the fifth order.
* In 1907 a second keeper’s dwelling was built. At some point years later the two dwellings were connected.
* The United States Coast Guard took over the lighthouses in 1939. Civilian keeper’s remained at the light until November 1973.
* The light was automated in 1985. The last keeper left at this time. The light has been “adopted” by the Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla. They open the light on special occasions. 
* The light remains an active aid to navigation.
Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

1829 NOBSKA POINT LIGHT TOWER

1876 NOBSKA POINT LIGHT TOWER


PALMER ISLAND LIGHT 

Location: NEW BEDFORD HARBOR 
Station Established: 1849 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1849 
Operational? NO 
Automated? YES 1941 
Deactivated: 1962 
Foundation Materials: RUBBLE STONE 
Construction Materials: RUBBLE STONE 
Tower Shape: CONICAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: FIFTH ORDER 

Historical Information:

* 1849 – 24’ rubblestone tower built.
* 1888-1891 – Lighthouse served as range light together with Fairhaven Bridge lighthouse to guide mariners through Butlers Flats until a lighthouse was built there.
* 1900 – Fog bell installed in separate structure.
* 1905 – Oil house built.
* 1941 – Lighthouse automated.
* 1962 – Lighthouse decommissioned.
* 1966 – Lighthouse burned by arsonists.
* 1989 – Renovations destroyed by vandals.
* Circa 1966 – Local group restored the lighthouse and improved the site.

Keepers: 

* William Sherman (1849-1853)
* Charles D. Tuell (1853-1861)
* George Cowie (1872-1891)
* Arthur Small (1922-1938)
* Franklin Ponte (c. 1939-1940)
* Martin Maloney (c.1941) 

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Also see entry for Fairhaven Bridge Light, New Bedford, Massachusetts, listing above.

Photographs:

PALMER ISLAND LIGHT TOWER WITH THE BIRDCAGE LANTERN ROOM

PALMER ISLAND LIGHT TOWER WITH THE REPLACEMENT LANTERN ROOM


PLYMOUTH (GURNET) LIGHT 

GURNET POINT/PLYMOUTH BAY 
Station Established: 1768 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1843 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1986 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: GRANITE 
Construction Materials: CEDAR SHINGLE 
Tower Shape: OCTAGONAL PYRAMIDAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN & RED ROOF 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: TWO FOURTH ORDER, FRESNEL 1871 

Historical Information:

* One of Massachusetts’ two minor peninsulas, extending north and south into the sea between Scituate and Plymouth, extends far south along a great stretch of sand dunes which end at the Gurnet.  In 1606 Champlain landed here and watched the Indians fishing for cod with fishhooks made of wood, on which a spear-shaped bone was fastened. The lines were made of tree bark. The Pilgrims called the land "the gurnett’s nose." The place was apparently named after several similar headlands in the English channel, many of them being called for the fish of that name which is caught along the coast of Devonshire.
* The Plymouth (Gurnet) Lighthouse was first established in 1768 by the Massachusetts Legislature. The first keeper was John Thomas on whose land the original lighthouse was built, and for which rent of 5 shillings per year was paid him by the colony. Later Hannah, his widow, was keeper. Both had received $200 per annum for their services. The lighthouse cost £660 to erect, was 30 feet long, 20 feet high, and 15 feet wide with a "lanthorn" at each end of the building, holding two lamps each.  During the Revolution, the three towns of Plymouth, Duxbury, and Kingston had erected a fort on the Gurnet. In the midst of an engagement between the fort and the British frigate Niger, which had gone aground on Brown’s Bank, a wild shot from the ship pierced the lighthouse. Later the vessel got off and escaped. The Gurnet Light, however, is thus the only United States lighthouse known to have ever been hit by a cannon ball.
* In 1778 the armed brigantine General Arnold was caught in a blizzard while less than a mile from the light and the captain anchored his vessel rather than risk the treacherous waters of Plymouth’s inner harbor without a pilot. The vessel dragged anchor and hit on White Flats. Seventy two of the crew died most of them freezing to death in the below-zero temperature before they could be rescued. The keeper of Gurnet Light was unable to go to their aid because the harbor was blocked with ice. A causeway had to be built over the ice to rescue the survivors.
* In 1783 the damage done to the lighthouse during the Revolution was repaired. In a terrible December snowstorm in 1786, a coasting sloop from Boston to Plymouth was caught off Gurnet. Only one man was hurt when the ship struck a sand bar and all landed safely. Several miles from any habitation two men finally reached Gurnet Lighthouse and Thomas Burgess, the keeper, dispatched his assistant to help the others reach the lighthouse safely.
* Under the act of August 7, 1789, the United States accepted cession of the lighthouse by Massachusetts on June 10, 1790, including "the interest of the Commonwealth in the lighthouse land, etc., on the Gurnet Head, west of Plymouth."  On July 2, 1801, the lighthouse was completely destroyed by fire. The merchants of Plymouth and Duxbury erected a temporary beacon at their own expense. On April 6, 1802, Congress appropriated $270 to reimburse them. At the same time Congress also appropriated $2,500 "for rebuilding the lighthouse on Gurnet." Twin lights were built and the Thomas family was paid $120 for the land on which the new lighthouses were constructed.
* Joseph Burgess succeeded his father as keeper on October 16, 1812, and remained in charge of the light until 1851.  Congress appropriated $5,000 in 1836 "for preserving the point of land leading to the fort and lighthouse at the Gurnet, in Duxbury, by hurdles or double ranges of piles."   Lt. Edward W. Carpender, USN, reported on November 1, 1838, that the Gurnet light beams were horizontal rather than perpendicular as other lighthouse beams were. "They require to be double to distinguish them from the single light at Barnstable. They are in separate towers, 22 feet high and 30 feet apart. They consist of a single series of six lamps each, with old 8 1/2-inch reflectors, arranged in a circular form, so as to suit the harbor as well as sea navigation. Their elevation is 70 feet above the level of the sea, enabling them to be seen 19 miles."
* Carpender pointed out that the lights were too close together, causing them to blend and appear as a single light at a short distance. Also being horizontal they "were likely to come into a range with each other, by which .they also appear single." Carpender’s remedy for this was to convert them from horizontal to perpendicular beams, but his suggestion was never carried out.
* In 1842 the Gurnet lighthouses were rebuilt and the new structures, while still of wood, each had a distinctive design. In 1871 the lights were of the sixth order and were declared by the Lighthouse Board to be "entirely too small" and "readily mistaken for the lights in a dwelling house, when they can be seen at all." Their distance apart was also too short to afford an efficient range. Nothing ever came of the recommendation that they be replaced with fourth-order lights "separated by a proper distance for an effective range.
* After 1851, Thomas Treble followed Joseph Burgess as keeper. His successors were William Sears, Milton Reamy, Edward S. Gorham, Henry L. Pingree, and A. S. Eisener.  Keeper Reed rescued the crew of the mine sweeper U. S. S. Swan stranded on Gurnet Beach on November 28, 1920 and Keeper Davis in 1929 had a long list of rescues to his credit.
* Gurnet Light had lost its importance as a light as Plymouth Harbor lost its shipping traffic over the years. Not until Cape Cod Canal was opened in 1914 did the lighthouse again become an important coastal beacon.  In 1924 the northeast tower was discontinued and the station is now described as a white, octagonal, pyramidal tower, with white dwelling, 39 feet above ground and 102 feet above water. Its 700,000 candlepower, fourth-order electric light shows group flashing white every 20 seconds and is visible for 16 miles. An air diaphragm horn blasts for 3 seconds every 15 seconds during fog.

Photographs:

PLYMOUTH LIGHT'S TWIN TOWERS

PLYMOUTH LIGHT'S SINGLE TOWER


RACE POINT LIGHT

Location: NORTHWEST TIP OF CAPE COD NEAR PROVINCETOWN, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1816
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1876
Operational? YES
Automated? 1978
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Materials: NATURAL/EMPLACED
Construction Materials: IRON PLATE WITH BRICK INTERIOR
Tower Shape: CONICAL
Markings/Pattern: WHITE WITH BLACK LANTERN
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPERATE
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER FRESNEL

Historical Information:

* In 1816 a rubblestone lighthouse was built at Race Point. It was the third light on Cape Cod and housed one of the first rotating beacons. That differentiated it from the existing lights.
* In 1858 a fourth order Fresnel lens was installed in the light. A second keeper’s quarters were built in 1874. By 1875 the original tower was in horrible shape. It was reported the mortar had disappeared and the tower needed to be rebuilt.
* In 1876 an iron tower replaced the original stone tower. The new tower’s interior was lined with brick. The original Fresnel lens was installed in the new tower. The original keeper’s house was torn down and rebuilt at this time.
* In 1957 electricity reached the light station. The larger keeper’s house was torn down in 1960 and the other house was modernized.
* The light was automated in 1972. The light remains an active aid to navigation. The tower and existing building are being restored. 
Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

1816 RACE POINT LIGHT TOWER

1876 RACE POINT LIGHT TOWER


SANDY NECK LIGHT 

Location: CAPE COD 
Station Established: 1827 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1857 
Operational? NO 
Automated? YES 1931 
Deactivated: 1931 
Foundation Materials: SURFACE ROCK 
Construction Materials: CAST IRON 
Tower Shape: CONICAL W/OUT LANTERN 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE TOWER W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: FIFTH ORDER, FRESNEL 

Historical Information:

* 1827 – Integral tower built with $3500 Congressional appropriation.
* 1857 – Lighthouse rebuilt as a separate tower.
* 1931 – Lighthouse disestablished and replaced by a skeletal tower.
* 1933 – Property sold into private ownership.
* 1952 – Skeletal tower discontinued.

Keepers:

* Joseph Nickerson (1826-1833)
* Henry Baxter (1833-1844)
* Thomas P. D. Baxter (1846-1862)
* Lucy Hinckley Baxter (1862-1867)
* Edward Gorham (1867-1875)
* Jacob S. Howes (1875-1880)
* Eunice Crowell Howes (1880-1886)
* Philip R. Smith (1886-1897)
* George A. Jamieson (1897-1908)
* James Jorgensen (1908-1909)
* Henry L. Pingree (1909-?)
* William L. Anderson (c. 1930)

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society. 

Photographs:

SANDY NECK LIGHTHOUSE


SANKATY HEAD LIGHT

Location: SOUTHEASTERN PART OF NANTUCKET ISLAND, NANTUCKET, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1850
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1850
Operational? YES
Automated? 1965
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Materials: BRICK
Construction Materials: BRICK/GRANITE
Tower Shape: CYLINDRICAL
Markings/Pattern: WHITE WITH RED BAND MIDWAY AND BLACK LANTERN
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPERATE
Original Lens: SECOND ORDER FRESNEL 

Historical Information:

* In 1850 the Sankaty Head Lighthouse was built on a 90 foot bluff. The 60 foot tower was painted white with a red band midway for use as a day marker.
* Sankaty Head Lighthouse was the first lighthouse in the United States to be equipped with a Fresnel lens as part of its original equipment. The second order lens made the light the most powerful light in New England. It could be seen at sea approximately 20 miles away. Local fisherman dubbed the light “the shining star”.
* The bright light made the lighthouse a tourist destination. The keeper had to enlarge the entrance to the lantern room to allow women with hoop skirts to pass through.
* Telegraph lines reached the light in 1886. In 1887 a new keeper’s dwelling was built. The wooden structure was big enough for the keeper and the assistant keeper’s families. The tower was raised 10 feet in 1888 and a new lantern was installed.
* The lens was replaced by aerobeacons in 1950. The light was automated in 1965. The lens was removed for safe keeping and is displayed at the Nantucket Whaling Museum. The lantern room was replaced with an “odd shaped aluminum cap” in 1970. The new cap caused the light to sweep over homes and autos. After numerous complaints the Coast Guard restored the original lantern room.
* The tower now stands precariously on the bluff. The rate of erosion is quickly eating the bluff and puts the tower in danger of falling into the sea. Fundraising efforts have begun and have raised funds that have been used to secure the bluff. All of the other buildings have been removed. The tower remains an active aid to navigation. 

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

SANKATY HEAD LIGHTHOUSE


SCITUATE LIGHT 

Location: CEDAR POINT/SCITUATE HARBOR 
Station Established: 1811 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1811 
Operational? YES 
Automated? UNK 
Deactivated: 1860-1994 
Foundation Materials: NATURAL/EMPLACED 
Construction Materials: GRANITE/BRICK
Height: 25 feet 
Tower Shape: OCTAGONAL 
Markings/Pattern: SOLID WHITE W/GREEN LANTERN ROOM ROOF 
Relationship to Other Structure: ATTACHED
Characteristics: White over red light 
Original Lens: PAN LAMP 1811; Fresnel lens in 1855

Historical Information:

* 1810, May:  The Federal Government appropriated $4000 for a lighthouse to be built at the entrance of Scituate Harbor. 
* 1811, September 19:  The lighthouse was completed two months ahead of schedule making it the 11th lighthouse in the United States. 
* 1814, September:  Rebecca and Abagail Bates, "The Army of Two", warded off an attack by British soldiers by playing their fife and drum loudly.  The British retreated since they thought the sound came from the Scituate Town Militia. 
* 1827:  The height of the lighthouse was raised 15 feet and a new lantern room was added to improve the visibility of this lighthouse. 
* 1850:  Due to the construction of the Minot's Ledge Light the lighthouse was removed from service. 
* 1852:  The lighthouse was put back into service after a storm destroyed the first Minot's Ledge Light. 
* 1855:  The light received a new Fresnel lens. 
* 1860:  The light was once again removed from service after the second tower at Minot's Ledge was built. 
* 1891:  A skeleton tower was placed at the end of the jetty built in 1890.  Keepers for this new light were housed in the Scituate Lighthouse keeper's quarters. 
* 1916:  The lighthouse was put up for sale.  
* 1917:  The town of Scituate bought the lighthouse for $4,000. 
* 1924:  An acetylene automated light was installed at the skeleton tower and keepers were no longer needed. 
* 1958:  An automated electric beacon was placed on the jetty. 
* 1960's:  The lighthouse was still in a state of disrepair.  The Scituate Historical Society appropriated $6,500 for repairs. 
* 1988:  The lighthouse was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. 
* 1991, July:  The lighthouse was relit with the light visible only from land. 
* 2002:  Occasional tours are available from the Scituate Historical Society.

Keepers: 

* Simeon Bates (1811-1834)
* Zeba Cushing (1834-1840)
* Ebenezer Osborne (1840-1849)
* James Bates (1849-1851)
* Anthony Waterman (1851-1853)
* Alonzo Jones (1853-1856)
* Thomas Richardson (1856-1860)
* John Prouty (1891-1904)
* John Frank Cushman (1904-1924)

Chronology was researched and written by Diane Hackney. Keepers added by Marie Vincent, volunteers through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

SCITUATE LIGHTHOUSE



SPECTACLE ISLAND RANGE LIGHTS

Location: INNER BOSTON HARBOR, NORTHEAST PART OF SPECTACLE ISLAND, NEAR BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1897
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1897
Operational? YES
Automated? N/A
Deactivated: 1913
Foundation Materials: MASONRY
Construction Materials: WOOD
Tower Shape: OCTAGONAL
Markings/Pattern: WHITE ON LOWER AND UPPER THIRDS, RED IN THE MIDDLE
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE
Original Lens: UNKNOWN

Historical Information:

* In 1892 the Lighthouse Board made a case for range lights on Spectacle Island. The money was appropriated in 1895 and the lights were lit on May 20, 1897.
* The Spectacle Range Lights were often confused with the Broad Sound Channel Inner Range Lights which were built on the same island in 1903.
* In 1904 the Spectacle Lights were moved 15 feet to the South onto new masonry foundations. The towers were repainted. The lower and upper thirds were painted white while the middle third was painted red.
* In 1913 it was decided that the Spectacle Range lights were obsolete. The shipping channel had moved and the lights no longer served their purpose. Local groups protested believing it was the Broad Sound lights that were going to be extinguished. It was clarified which lights were going to be deactivated and the lights were extinguished on July 15, 1913.
* The lights have been destroyed but many cruises out of Boston pass the island.

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

SPECTACLE ISLAND RANGE LIGHTS


STAGE HARBOR LIGHT 

STAGE HARBOR/NANTUCKET SOUND 
Station Established: 1880 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1880 
Operational? NO 
Automated? 
Deactivated: 1933 
Foundation Materials: 
Construction Materials: CAST IRON 
Tower Shape: CONICAL W/OUT LANTERN 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE 
Relationship to Other Structure: ATTACHED 
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER, FRESNEL 

Photographs:

STAGE HARBOR LIGHTHOUSE


STRAITSMOUTH ISLAND LIGHT 

Location: STRAIGHTSMOUTH ISLAND 
Station Established: 1835 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1896 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1967 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: GRANITE 
Construction Materials: BRICK/ASPHALT 
Tower Shape: CYLINDRICAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens:

Historical Information:

* 1834 – Congress allocated $5,000 for a lighthouse on this site.
* 1835 – Lighthouse was built to mark the entrance to Pigeon Cove.
* 1850s – 5th order Fresnel lens installed.
* 1896 – Present tower built to replace original.
* 1932 – Light characteristic changed from white to green. The color was produced by a circular green shade in a shade holder.
* 1967 – Lighthouse automated and lens removed.
* 1985 – Converted to solar power.
* 1991 – Entryway to the tower was destroyed by a storm. It was subsequently replaced.
Keepers: 
* Benjamin Andrews (1835-1841)
* John Davis (1841-?)
* Henry F. Low (1850-?)
* Nehemiah Knowlton (18??) 

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

1835 STRAITSMOUTH ISLAND LIGHT TOWER

1896 STRAITSMOUTH ISLAND LIGHT TOWER


TARPAULIN COVE LIGHT 

Location: TARPAULIN COVE ON NAUSHON ISLAND, ELIZABETH ISLANDS, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1759
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1891
Operational? YES
Automated? 1941
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Materials: NATURAL/EMPLACED/CONCRETE
Construction Materials: BRICK
Tower Shape: CYLINDRICAL ATTACHED TO WORKROOM
Markings/Pattern: WHITE 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPERATE
Original Lens: FIFTH ORDER FRESNEL, 1856

Historical Information:

* In 1759 Zaccheus Lumbert, who ran the local tavern, established a light on Naushon Island for the “public good of the Whalemen and Coasters”. For nearly six decades the light was maintained. 
* The government made appropriations for an official light at Tarpaulin Cove in 1807. It would be
another decade before any action was taken to actually build the light.
* In 1818 a rubblestone tower with a “bird cage” style lantern room was built and lit. Some reports list the tower’s height at 38 feet but others say 27feet. A fifth order Fresnel lens was installed in 1856.
* By 1891 the lighthouse needed to be replaced. A 28-foot brick tower was built with a conventional cast iron lantern. A fourth order Fresnel lens was installed in the new tower. At the same time, a 1,200 pound fog bell with striking machinery was installed. The bell tower was destroyed in a hurricane in 1938.
* The light was automated in 1941. By 1962 the Keeper’s house fell into such disrepair it was torn down. The Fresnel lens was replaced by a modern optic.
* The light is managed by the Cuttyhunk Historical Society. It remains an active aid to navigation.

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

1818 TARPAULIN COVE LIGHT TOWER

TARPAULIN COVE LIGHTHOUSE, CIRCA 1891


TEN POUND ISLAND LIGHT

Location: GLOUCESTER HARBOR 
Station Established: 1821
First Lit: Oct. 1821
Operational: Yes 
Automated: Yes- 1934
Deactivated: 1956 – Aug. 7,1989
Foundation Material: Brick
Construction Material: Stone / Cast Iron
Tower Shape: Conical stone was replaced by Cast Iron
Markings: White with Black Lantern- Original Brown
Relationship to Other Structures: Separate
Original Lens: Argon Lamps
Tower Height: 39 feet
Range: 5 miles
Original Optic: Fifth Order Fresnel Lens 
Present Optic: 375 mm Lens in 1966 / 250 mm Lens in 1976
Characteristics: Fixed White Light- 3 second red alternating 3 seconds of darkness
First Keeper: Amos Story
Current Use: Active Aid to Navigation
Fog Signal: Now automated horn with 2 blasts every 20 seconds-previously had a fog bell
National Register Status 

Historical Information:

* In 1820 The Commonwealth of Mass chutes and the town of Glouster ceded approx. 1.7 acres to the U.S. Government for the erection of an inner Harbor Lighthouse. 
* In 1821 a 40’ stone tower, house storage shed was built for $24,200.00 
* In 1881 stone tower was replaced by the present cast iron structure. 
* There are numerous roomers on how Ten Pound Island received its name. One was for the amount of money that was paid to the Coral Indians for the property.  
* Historian Joseph Garland wrote that it was more likely named for the number of sheep in pens (also known as pounds) on the island. 
* Another roomer is that a ten-pound cannonball fired from Stage Fort across the harbor reached the island. 
* Ten-pound Island was the most painted. The great American artist Winslow Homer painted it. Artist Fritz Hugh Lane also painted it. 
* During Winslow Homer’s stay he stayed with the Light keeper. He painted approx. 50 painting of the island and the Lighthouse.  
* In 1925 a Coast Guard air station was placed on the island with one small scout plane. Later 2 amphibious vehicles were added to the station. The purpose of the station was to catch rumrunners in the area during Prohibition. 
* In 1956 Ten Pound Island Light was decommissioned. The Fifth Order Frensel Lens was removed and replaced by a modern optic. The modern optic was placed on the bell tower. Later it was moved to a skeleton tower.  
* The Fifth Order Frensel Lens is now in The Maine Lighthouse Museum in Rockland Maine. 
* In the late 1980’s The Lighthouse Preservation Society initiated the restoration of the lighthouse. This took two years to complete. 

Researched and written by Linda Herman, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

1821 TEN POUND ISLAND LIGHT TOWER

1881 TEN POUND ISLAND LIGHT TOWER


THREE SISTERS LIGHTS (THREE TOWERS) 

Location: RELOCATED TO LOCATION CLOSE TO NAUSET LIGHT BEACH 
Station Established: 1838 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1892 
Operational? NO 
Automated? NO 
Deactivated: 1923 
Foundation Materials: BRICK/ORIG. WOOD SLATS 
Construction Materials: WOOD 
Tower Shape: CONICAL 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER, FRESNEL 1870 

Historical Information: 

* 1833 – Boston Marine Society formed a committee to study the need for a lighthouse on the outer portion of Cape Cod. The report recommended building three towers between Highland (Cape Cod Truro) and Chatham (two towers). Congress allocated $10,000 for the project. 
* 1837 – Three brick towers (known as the Three Sisters) were built on five acres of land which had been purchased for $150.00. 
* 1858 – A 6th order Fresnel lens was installed. 
* 1868 – Extensive repairs were made to the Keeper’s house – including ten new window frames, a chimney extension and a new sill. More repairs were made the following year. 
* 1873 – The 6th order lens was replaced with a 4th order lens. 
* 1892 – The three brick towers had deteriorated and were rebuilt as three wooden towers. 
* 1893 – British bark Jason ran aground in a snowstorm near the lighthouses. 
* 1895 – Storm porches were added to the three towers. 
* 1911 – The center tower was moved back from the edge of the eroding cliff. 
* 1918 – The two end towers were sold for the sum of $3.50. They became part of a summer cottage. 
* 1923 – The one remaining wooden tower was replaced by one of the two cast iron towers at Chatham. The wooden tower was then sold and used as part of another summer cottage. 
* 1965 – The NPS bought back the two towers that had been sold in 1918. 
* c. 1975 – NPS bought back the remaining tower 
* 1983 – The additions that had been added to the third tower, by the previous owner, were removed. 
* 1990 – NPS moved all three of the wooden towers to their current position in Eastham, MA, about 1,800 feet from the Nauset Lighthouse.

Keepers:  

* Michael Collins (1838 - c. 1843, 1861 - 1866) 
* Henry Horton (c. 1843) 
* B. H. A. Collins (1843 - 1849, 1853 - 1861) 
* Joshua Crosby (1849 - 1851) 
* Henry Y. Hatch (1851 - 1853) 
* Peter Higgins (1866 - 1869) 
* George W. Eldredge (assistant 1867) 
* John Dunn (assistant 1867) 
* Samuel Snow (assistant 1867 - 1868) 
* John J. Ryder (assistant 1868 - 1870) 
* Nathan A. Gill (Sr.?) (1869 - 1883) 
* Herman Gill (assistant 1870 and 1873) 
* Nathan A. Gill (Jr.?) (assistant 1873 - 1879) 
* Alfred Gill (assistant 1879 - ?) 
* Stephen Lewis (1883 - 1914) 
* Thomas J. Kelley (1914 - 1918) 
* James Yates (1918 - 1919) 
* George I. Herbolt (1919 - 1932) 

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

"THREE SISTERS" LIGHTS


WEST CHOP LIGHT 

Location: ENTRANCE TO VINEYARD HAVEN HARBOR, MARHTA’S VINEYARD NEAR TISBURY, MASSACHUSETTS
Station Established: 1818
Year Current Tower(s) First Lit: 1891
Operational? YES
Automated? 1976
Deactivated: N/A
Foundation Materials: CONCRETE/STONE
Construction Materials: BRICK
Tower Shape: CYLINDRICAL
Markings/Pattern: WHITE WITH BLACK LANTERN
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER FRESNEL 

Historical Information:

* On October 5, 1817 a 25-rubblestone tower was lit on West Chop. West Chop is one of the land masses that protect the harbor at Vineyard Haven in Martha’s Vineyard. The other land mass is known as East Chop. A stone dwelling was built as the keeper’s quarters.
* Due to erosion the station was rebuilt in 1846. A round tower and stone Cape-style keeper’s quarters were built about 1,000 feet southwest of the original location. The round tower was later covered with shingles which gave the tower an octagonal appearance. The shingles were supposed to cut down on leaks.
* In 1857 a second light was placed atop the keeper’s quarters. This was meant to replace a series of range lights that marked the entrance to the harbor.
* In 1882 a 1-½ story wood framed assistant keeper’s house was built. In 1888 the 1846 stone dwelling was removed and a second wooden house was built.
* By the 1890’s West Chop had become a popular retreat location and large houses were being built. These houses started to dwarf the lighthouse. A 17 foot mast with a light at the top was added to the tower. Finally the 1846 tower was replaced with a 45 foot tower in 1891. The tower was originally painted red but was painted white in 1896.
* The light was automated in 1976. It was the last light in Martha’s Vineyard to be automated. However, the original fourth order lens is still intact and in use in the light.
* The light is an active aid to navigation. The keeper’s house closest to the light is a residence for the Coast Guard. The second keeper’s quarters is a vacation home for members of all military branches.

Researched and written by Melissa Buckler, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

1847 WEST CHOP LIGHT TOWER

1891 WEST CHOP LIGHT TOWER


WINGS NECK LIGHT 

Location: BUZZARD'S BAY
Station Established: 1849
First Lit: 
Operational: No
Automated: No
Deactivated: Discontinued in 1945
Foundation Material: Fieldstone
Construction Material: Wood
Tower Shape: Hexagonal pyramidal wooden tower with black cast iron lantern
Markings: White with Black Lantern
Relationship to Other Structures: Attached to the stone dwelling
Original Lens: Multiple lanterns and reflectors
Tower Height: 32 feet
Range: –6 miles
Original Optic: Three and one Half-Order Fresnel Lens 
Present Optic: None
Characteristics: It was fixed then it was changed to flashing
First Keeper: Edward D. Lawrence
Current Use: Private Residence, vocational rental
Fog Signal: Fog Bell and striking mechanism in pyramidal tower (destroyed)
National Register Status

Historical Information:

* The land where the lighthouse is built was once swampy and mosquito infested.
* In 1837 Congress first appropriated $5,000 for a lighthouse at the tip of Wing’s Neck, but it was delayed after some debate about whether the lighthouse was really needed.
* Maritime traffic in the area increased, so Congress appropriated $3,500 for a lighthouse in 1848.
* Due to the poor condition and fire damage the funds were appropriated in 1888 to rebuild the station.
* In 1902 a pyramidal wooden bell tower and 1,000-pound fog bell was added.
* For many years, Wing’s Neck was deemed the most important lighthouses on the Atlantic Coast because of the heavy shipping traveling the Cape Cod Canal.
* When Cleveland Ledge Light was built Wings Neck was considered expendable.
* In 1945 Wings Neck was discontinued and went up for sale in 1947. Frank and Irene Flanagan bought the lighthouse; they lived in it until they died.
* The area around the lighthouse is a monitoring station for the Cape Cod Canal, with radar and a closed circuit television system.
* The Lighthouse is now a vacation rental.
Researched and written by Linda Herman, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

WINGS NECK LIGHTHOUSE


WOOD END LIGHT 

Location: NORTH OF CAPE COD HARBOR 
Station Established: 1864 
Year Current/Last Tower(s) First Lit: 1873 
Operational? YES 
Automated? YES 1960 
Deactivated: n/a 
Foundation Materials: CONCRETE 
Construction Materials: BRICK 
Tower Shape: SQUARE 
Markings/Pattern: WHITE W/BLACK LANTERN 
Relationship to Other Structure: SEPARATE 
Original Lens: FOURTH ORDER, FRESNEL 1873 

Historical Information:

* 1872 - $15,000 appropriated by Congress for the lighthouse station.
* 1896 – A second keeper’s house, an oil house and a shed added to the station.
* 1902 – Fog bell tower, complete with 1,000 pound bell, built.
* 1911 – Stone breakwater built, allowing more direct access between the light station and the town at low tide.
* 1927 – The Navy submarine S-4 and Coast Guard Cutter Paulding collided ½ mile south of the lighthouse, killing 42 men.
* 1961 – Lighthouse automated and all outbuildings, except the oil house, razed. Fifth order lens replaced by aero-beacon.
* 1979 – Station turned over to the U.S. Navy.
* 1981 – Lighthouse converted to solar power.
Keepers: 
* Thomas Lowe (1872-1897)
* Philip R. Smith (1897-?)
* George H. Fitzpatrick (c. 1940s)
* George Grimes (c. 1940s) 

Researched and written by Marie Vincent, a volunteer through the Chesapeake Chapter of the U.S. Lighthouse Society.

Photographs:

WOOD END LIGHTHOUSE


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