Cuckolds Light Station's National Register of Historic Places Nomination
1. Name of Property
Historic name: Cuckolds Light Station
Other names/site number: Cuckolds Island Fog Signal Station
street & number: N/A not for publication: N/A
city or town: Southport vicinity: X
state: Maine code: ME county: Lincoln code: 015
zip code: N/A
3. State/Federal Agency Certification
As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1986, as amended, I hereby certify that this ____ nomination ____ request for determination of eligibility meets the documentation standards for registering properties in the National Register of Historic Places and meets the procedural and professional requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the property ____ meets ____ does not meet the National Register Criteria. I recommend that this property be considered significant ___ nationally ___ statewide ___ locally. (___ See continuation sheet for additional comments.)
Signature of certifying official Date
State or Federal agency and bureau
In my opinion, the property ____ meets ____ does not meet the National Register criteria. (___ See continuation sheet for additional comments.)
Signature of commenting or other official Date
State or Federal agency and bureau
4. National Park Service Certification
I, hereby certify that this property is:
____ entered in the National Register ______________________
___ See continuation sheet.
____ determined eligible for the ______________________
___ See continuation sheet.
____ determined not eligible for the ______________________
____ removed from the National Register ______________________
____ other (explain): _________________
__________________________________ ______________________ _________
Signature of Keeper Date of Action
Ownership of Property (Check as many boxes as apply)
Category of Property (Check only one box)
Number of Resources within Property
____ ____ sites
1 2 structures
____ ____ objects
1 2 Total
Number of contributing resources previously listed in the National Register 0
Name of related multiple property listing: Light Stations of the United States
6. Function or Use
Historic Functions (Enter categories from instructions)
Cat: transportation Sub: water-related
Current Functions (Enter categories from instructions)
Cat: transportation Sub: water-related
Architectural Classification (Enter categories from instructions): No Style
Fog Signal Building:
foundation: cut granite block
roof: asphalt shingle
walls: brick and portion of frame keeper's quarters extant with wood shingle
foundation: surmounted on fog signal building
walls: wood shingle
Narrative Description (Describe the historic and current condition of the property.)1
The Cuckolds Light Station was established in 1907 at the previously established 1892 fog signal station. The fog signal station was completed on November 16, 1892, at a cost of $24,750 including all machinery in place.2 The only access to the island is by boat or helicopter.
The Cuckolds Light Station is located about 3/8ths of a mile south of Cape Newagan, Maine, on a barren rock ledge or island marking the ocean entrance to Boothbay Harbor. The rock is about 15 feet above high water at its highest point and is washed by the sea in heavy storms. Therefore, a semicircular granite pier was constructed on the highest part of the island to support and raise the fog signal station structure above the storm waves. The light tower was later mounted on the fog signal building. This structure and the formerly existing keeper's quarters are located approximately in the center of the rock. The station cistern and storeroom were located inside the semicircular granite pier. The formerly existing boathouse was located on the northwest side of the island where it was partially protected by a smaller nearby island. The foundations of the boathouse are located at the end of the boat ways about 150 feet from the western edge of the island. The helicopter platform is located west of the fog signal station.
Existing Contributing Resources3
Fog signal building (1892) with light tower (1907) addition
Fog signal building
The semicircular granite pier foundation for the fog signal structure is 36 feet in diameter, approximately 2 feet wide, and 12 feet high. A brick fog signal building surmounts the foundation pier. It is set back from the edge of the pier, but with the same semicircular shape along the front wall as the foundation. The roof cantilevers over the edge of the fog signal building forming a walkway that is supported by cast-iron columns along the foundation wall. The ceiling of the cantilever roof over the covered walkway is tongue-and-groove wood painted white. There are three windows and a door along this wall. The door from the fog signal building to the walkway is located on the west end of the wall; it is a historically inappropriate stainless steel door. The windows have been filled with bricks since automation, but the two easternmost windows are in the process of being reopened and covered with Lexan to provide light. The roof is a conical pyramid-shaped roof originally of wooden shingles now replaced with red asphalt shingles. Some of the red asphalt shingles were replaced in September 1998. A tall brick chimney originally rose through the south side of the roof, but this was taken down prior to 1951 possibly when the fog signal engine was switched from hot air to oil in 1902. The first-order Daboll trumpet was mounted on the roof facing toward the southeast. The granite foundation and brick walls of the structure are painted white.
There are 12 granite steps plus the landing from the main level of the former keeper's dwelling to the entrance of the fog signal station. A small storage compartment is located within the pier foundation of the signal station on the western side of the entrance steps. It is accessed by two granite steps from the dwelling level; a brick cistern is located here. Part of the piping from the roof and gutters system to the cistern is intact. The door to the compartment is not original nor historically appropriate. The door to the fog signal station from where the keeper's house once stood is a historically inappropriate stainless steel door. The semi-circular fog signal room's floor is concrete with brick walls. The original plaster lath ceiling is now covered with a suspended ceiling.
Light tower addition
The light tower is a wooden octagonal shaped tower built upon the fog signal station structure in 1907. It was painted white with red trim, but now is painted all white. A window located on the north face of the tower directly over where the dwelling roof ridgeline was located is now filled with historically inappropriate glass block. The lantern, which surmounts the tower, is octagonal in shape with single panes in each face. The roof is a pyramidal metal roof capped by a ventilator globe and lightning aerial terminal. The lantern gallery is cantilevered over the edge of the tower and is surrounded by a two-tier rail with vertical balustrades. A door from the fog signal room leads to a set of wooden stairs, which provides access to the service room located in the apex of the fog signal building roof. The stairwell door is a four panel wooden door, which is probably original to the construction of the tower. The stairs and stair molding may also be original though the pipe rail on the wall is not. The varnished wooden banister at the head of the stairs appears original. A gray painted wooden service bench is located along one wall. It has three drawers on one side and a door on the other. This bench appears to be original to the tower construction. There is also a small storage alcove in one corner of the room. The door to this storage closet appears to be original. The door at the head of the stairs to the service room is missing. The walls and ceiling are plastered. A wooden ladder from the service room through the lantern deck provides access to the lantern. The lantern room floor is wood. There are four adjustable ventilators in the lantern parapet; two of which are replica replacements. Access to the lantern gallery is via a half-door located in the west face of the lantern parapet. The lantern is painted black. The original fourth-order Fresnel lens had been replaced by a 300mm acyclic lens and in September 1998 by a Vega 25.
Keeper's dwelling (1892)
The northern most portion of the dwelling connection to the fog signal building is intact. This includes a short section of framing sided by wood shingles and brick flooring. The floor joist for the northern most wall of the dwelling is intact. What survives serves as a partially closed portico to the fog signal entrance.
Existing Non-contributing Resources4
Helicopter landing platform
A helicopter landing platform was built on the southwest end of the island. It is made of heavy timbers built on concrete piers. This platform was probably built near the automation date of 1975 and is not considered a contributing resource.
A boat way runs from the protected western side of the island approximately 150 feet to the site of a former boathouse. While the boat way site dates from the original construction, the current boat way is one of probably several replacements and is not considered a contributing resource.
Previously Existing Structures5
Daymark (by 1888)
A daymark on Cuckolds was in existence by 1888 when Maine deeded the island to the United States for use as a fog signal station. An 1888 reference states there was a wooden tripod 57-feet-tall with the upper half covered with boards. An undated photograph taken during the construction of the fog signal station shows a wooden tripod. Each pole forming the tripod had wooden horizontal crosspieces to allow climbing of the tripod. The upper third of the tripod had wooden horizontal slats that ran from pole to pole forming the daymark. It appears the daymark was painted black, but some other dark color is also possible.6 The daymark also appears to have been located on the east side of the island just southeast of the present fog signal station location.
Attached keeper's quarters (1892)
The attached keeper's dwelling was a duplex made from a hard pine frame and was well bolted to the ledge. It was attached to the fog signal building. The ell, which connected the dwelling, is extant; everything else has been demolished. The dwelling consisted of a 12-story structure with cross gable dormers on the upper half story. The duplex was built so one-half of the dwelling mirrored the other down the ridge of the roof. Each half consisted of a kitchen, pantry, and sitting room on the first level and two bedrooms on the second level. The plans for the station, dated 1891, indicate the structure was to be sided with wood shingles on the upper half and horizontal wood siding on the lower half; the windows were six-over-six double-hung sash with protective shutters. A window was located in the end of each dormer gable, and two windows were located on the north gable end. Four windows were located on the first floor on the east and west face. Photographs, however, show the structure completely covered with horizontal wood siding; all the windows appear to have been four-over-four wooden double sash. Two chimneys rose through the roof just north of the cross gable dormer roof ridgeline; one chimney is on each side. A bulkhead of hard pine, 60 feet long, built in 1892 or 1893, protected the dwelling and other outbuildings. In 1907, it was reported that a wooden cistern was built for the keeper's dwelling.7 The keeper's dwelling was destroyed during a blizzard in 1978 and never rebuilt.
Oil house (1903)
Oil was needed for the fog signal station when the engine was changed from hot air to oil in 1902. It was reported in 1903 that a wooden oil house was built. A series of small appropriations by Congress between 1888 to about 1918 called for separate fireproof oil houses at each lighthouse station to accommodate "mineral oil," more commonly known as kerosene, as a replacement for whale oil. The volatile nature of kerosene necessitated the construction of separate oil houses, which were usually built of fireproof materials such as brick, stone, iron plate and concrete. The fact that this oil house was built of wood in 1905 indicates that the stored oil was not kerosene, as then typically used for an illuminate, but oil for the fog signal engines. The oil house was built immediately behind or north of the dwelling. It was rectangular in shape with gable ends at the east and west side. The structure was painted white with a wood shingled roof. This structure appears to replace a smaller frame shed with vertical board and batten siding dating from 1892.
Boathouse and ways (1892)
The boathouse and boat slip were built on the protected west side of the island. The rectangular gabled-ended frame structure was painted white with board and batten siding. A door and window was located in the west end where the boat slip connected to the structure. The boat way is wide enough for two side by side boat slips, but only one slip is in evidence in photographs dating between 1892 and 1951--although two boats were shown on one slip at one time. In 1901, it was reported that repairs were made to the dory slip and boat slip suggesting two slips existed at that time. The boat slip was extended and repaired in 1902.8
Bell tower (exact date of construction unknown)
A 1931 photograph shows a structure located near the former daymark location. It appears to be a small square structure built on piles off the ground similar to a fog signal bell tower. It is known that a bell was used as a back up at this station. Perhaps this structure was where the bell was housed at one time.9
Bulkhead, fence and walkway
In 1893, a 60 foot-long, hard pine bulkhead was constructed from the east side of the granite foundation of the fog signal building to the east side of the station in order to protect the dwelling and outbuildings. This has since been replaced with a creosote timber bulkhead. A similar bulkhead was built on the west side. It was painted white and supported by anchored iron rod tiebacks. In 1897, two fences were built for protection against the wind. At one time, a wooden open picket fence ran from the end of the wind fence along the south side of the station perpendicular to the boathouse. By 1951, a concrete walkway existed from the boathouse to the keeper's dwelling.10
During construction, a temporary rectangular frame structure, probably for storing materials, was built just south of the construction site. It was built with vertical wooden siding. A chimney in the west end of the structure suggests that it may also have been used for temporary quarters for workmen during construction.
Changes in Physical Appearance and Integrity Issues
The fog signal building was altered by the addition of the light tower in 1907. The ceiling in the building was enclosed to house the service room for the light. The windows in the south wall of the fog signal building were filled with brick, but two of these windows have now been reopened. The original doors to the building have been replaced by historically inappropriate stainless steel doors. The original wood shingle roof of the fog signal building has been replaced with red asphalt shingles. The sole window in the light tower has been filled with historically inappropriate glass blocks. The keeper's dwelling (except for the wooden connector to the fog signal building), the boathouse; and oil house were demolished. A helicopter landing platform and large solar panels are modern additions to the station.
The Cuckolds Fog Signal Station is architecturally unique because of its granite block pier shaped in a semi-circle to protect the station from storm waves. The pyramidal roof with the added light tower adds to the unique architecture of this building. Despite the historically inappropriate stainless steel doors and filled window openings, the overall architecture of the fog signal building is intact. The removal of the keeper's quarters is a major integrity problem as it was attached to the fog signal building. However, physical appearance of the fog signal building is little changed. It warrants consideration for listing in the National Register because of its unique architectural design and the relative rarity of fog signal buildings, even though it was adapted with a light tower. This is the only fog signal building known to be built with this design because of the low elevation and exposure of the rock on which it stands. The pier and pyramidal roof designs are unique.
8. Statement of Significance
Applicable National Register Criteria (Mark "x" in one or more boxes for the criteria qualifying the property for National Register listing)
X A Property is associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history.
____ B Property is associated with the lives of persons significant in our past.
X C Property embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction or represents the work of a master, or possesses high artistic values, or represents a significant and distinguishable entity whose components lack individual distinction.
____ D Property has yielded, or is likely to yield information important in prehistory or history.
Criteria Considerations (Mark "X" in all the boxes that apply.)
____ A owned by a religious institution or used for religious purposes
____ B removed from its original location
____ C a birthplace or a grave
____ D a cemetery
____ E a reconstructed building, object, or structure
____ F a commemorative property
____ G less than 50 years of age or achieved significance within the past 50 years
Areas of Significance (Enter categories from instructions):
Period of Significance: 1892-1952
Significant Dates: 1892, 1907
Significant Person (Complete if Criterion B is marked above): N/A
Cultural Affiliation: N/A Known Design Source: none
Architect/Builder: U.S. Lighthouse Board
Narrative Statement of Significance (Explain the significance of the property.)
The Cuckolds Light Station is significant for its association with federal government's efforts to provide an integrated system of navigational aids and to provide for safe maritime transportation in the United States. The Cuckolds Island Light Station marks the entrance to Boothbay Harbor from the ocean. The station first served as a fog signal station in 1892, but, in 1907, a light tower was added. The historic integrity of the station has been compromised by the destruction of all the station structures except the fog signal building and light tower built upon it. Still, the fog signal structure is unique because of its granite pier construction built to protect the station from storm waves and its later modification to a light tower. The light and fog signal at the station continue as active aids to navigation.
Boothbay Harbor was a busy fishing port in the 19th and early 20th century. The barren rock upon which the Cuckold station is located was first marked by a wooden tripod daymark. Because the daymark was of little use at nighttime or in foggy weather, a fog signal station was established in 1892. A light tower was added to the station in 1907 due to increased fishing vessel traffic in the bay. The station was automated in 1975.
The Lighthouse Board Report for 1890 described the need for a fog-signal station at Cuckolds as follows:
The Cuckolds consist of two rocky islets rising about 15 feet above high water in the westerly edge of the channel at the entrance to Booth Bay. The Atlantic Coast Pilot says of them:
They are dangerous of approach on their southern side on account of the reefs in that direction, and the shoals also extend half a mile to the westward of the western rock, ... but the eastward side of the eastern rock is quite bold-to. The flood current sets right on these rocks.
They are much dreaded by mariners in thick weather and are a great peril to a large number of vessels, as it is estimated that from three to four thousand enter the bay for refuge in Booth Bay Harbor, which is well protected and is one of the most useful and important harbors of refuge on the coast of Maine. It is therefore recommended that a fog-signal be placed on the Cuckolds of sufficient range to warn vessels of their approach. Numerous petitions have been received asking for the establishment of this fog-signal, and the Board, after careful investigation, has found that a fog-signal of sufficient range upon the easterly island of the Cuckolds will give vessels adequate warning of their approach and would be of great benefit to navigators. It is estimated that a keeper's dwelling, fog-signal house, cistern, bulkhead, machinery, etc., will cost $25,000, and an appropriation of this amount is recommended therefor. This was authorized by the act of August 30, 1890, but no appropriation was made for doing the work.
Meanwhile, the State of Maine deeded the Cuckolds to the United States on June 30, 1890 for use as a fog signal station.
Cuckolds Fog Signal Station, 1892
Congress appropriated $25,000 for a fog signal at or near Cuckolds Island, Boothbay or Townsend Harbor, Maine, on March 3, 1891. The fog signal at the station consisted of a compressed hot air, first-order Daboll trumpet in duplicate. In 1893, it was reported the fog signal machinery was overhauled and repaired. A 1,000-pound bell was installed as a back up while getting up the air pressure on the Daboll trumpet. In 1897, it was reported that two fences were built to protect the station against the wind. It was reported in 1898 that the direction of the fog signal was changed so that it could be heard in a more useful direction. In 1901, it was reported that the fog signal machinery was overhauled and repaired. The concrete apron along the underpinning of all the buildings was repainted and the concrete floor of the balcony was renewed. In 1902, it was reported that the old hot air fog signal apparatus was replaced by a modern oil-operated engine made in the machine shop in Boston. In 1904, it was reported that the fog-signal plant was overhauled. Reports show, in 1907, a brick water cistern was built for the fog signal.12
In 1904, the first-order Daboll trumpet at the Cuckolds fog signal plant was described as consisting of 4-horsepower oil engines, air compressors, and air tanks all in duplicate. It carried 4 pounds of pressure, and 1.2 cubic feet of free air were used during a second of blast. The fog signal station operated some 1,220 hours and consumed about 573 gallons of oil in 1904; operated some 1,112 hours and consumed about 549 gallons of oil in 1905; operated some 1,040 hours and consumed about 507 gallons of oil in 1906; and operated some 1,236 hours and consumed about 507 gallons of oil in 1907. In comparison, the hot air fog signal equipment in 1901 ran some 1,003 hours and consumed about 6 tons of coal. In 1902, the equipment ran some 797 hours using about five tons of coal before being changed over to oil, which operated some 423 hours and used about 195 gallons of oil.13
In 1933, the fog signal consisted of a first class reed horn with a 3-second blast followed by 17 seconds of silence. A bell was used if the horn was disabled. By 1971, the fog signal was changed to a diaphragm air horn with a blast of 2.5 seconds and a silent period of 17.5 seconds.14
Cuckolds Light Station, 1907
There was limited room on the island so a wooden light tower was built upon the brick fog signal building. The light station was described in 1930 as consisting of 7 acres, more or less of rocks, with the following improvements: a dwelling and fog signal house surmounted by a tower, boathouse and slip, bulkhead. The land was valued at nothing and the improvements at $32,000. The light was identified as giving a double white flash every six seconds. The light was described in 1933 as having a characteristic of a white flash for 0.3 seconds followed by an eclipse of 1.7 seconds followed by a white flash of 0.3 seconds followed by an eclipse of 3.7 seconds. The candlepower was 24,000 provided by an incandescent oil vapor lamp and fourth-order lens. The light was visible up to 13 miles.15
By 1946 and through at least 1951, the light had the same light characteristic, but the candlepower was increased to 30,000 fueled by an electric lamp and fourth-order lens. By 1971, the intensity of the light was increased to 500,000 candlepower indicated by station's resident personnel. By 1987, the light characteristic had changed to a one second white flash followed by a one second eclipse followed by a one second white flash followed by a three second eclipse. The original fourth-order lens is in the collection of the Shore Village Museum, Rockland, Maine.16
In September 1925, keeper Fred T. Robinson saved several persons from a disabled vessel, which was rapidly drifting out to sea.17 During the great storm of January 27 and 28, 1933, the bulkhead protecting the station was torn away and much of the contents of the assistant keeper's dwelling were destroyed. The assistant keeper was reimbursed by the Department of Commerce for his losses including his radio and Hawaiian guitar.18 At some point, a radio beacon was established at Cuckolds to aid the mariner in electronic navigation. The keeper's dwelling was destroyed during a blizzard in 1978.19 George A. Lewis was assigned to the station when it became a light station. Captain Elliott replaced Lewis until his transfer to Cape Elizabeth Light Station. On March 8, 1934, Justin A. Foss became keeper. H. E. Seavey was his assistant.20
9. Major Bibliographical References
Clifford, Candace, 1994 Inventory of Historic Light Stations (Washington, D.C.: Department of Interior, National Park Service, History Division, 1994).
The History of The Cuckolds Light Station (no author, or date giver, from Cuckolds file, U.S. Coast Guard Historians Office, copy in Cuckolds Light file, National Maritime Initiative, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.)
Holland, F. Ross, Jr., America's Lighthouses (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1988).
Holland, F. Ross, Jr., Great American Lighthouses (Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press, 1994).
Light List including Fog Signals, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, 1933 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Lighthouse Service, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1933).
Light List Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, St. Croix River, Maine, to the Rio Grande including the U.S. West Indian Islands (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1946).
Light List Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, St. Croix River, Maine, to the Rio Grande including the U.S. West Indian Islands (CG-158, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1951).
Light List Volume I Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, from St. Croix River, Maine, to Little River, South Carolina, First, Third, and Fifth Coast Guard Districts (CG-158, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1971)
Light List Volume I Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, from St. Croix River, Maine, to Ocean City Inlet, Maryland, First, Third, and Fifth Coast Guard Districts (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1987).
Questionnaire Covering Real Estate Owned by The United States for The Cuckolds Light Station, Cape Newagan, Maine, dated February 7, 1930 by C. E. Sherman, Superintendent of Lighthouses (copy in Cuckolds Light file, National Maritime Initiative, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.).
Snow, Edward Rowe, Famous New England Lighthouses (Yankee Publishing Company, Boston, Massachusetts, 1945).
Sterling, Robert Thayer, Lighthouses of the Maine Coast and the Men Who Keep Them (Stephen Daye Press, Brattleboro, Vermont, 1935).
U.S. Lighthouse Board, Annual Reports, 1892-1907, (Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.).
Previous documentation on file (NPS)
___ preliminary determination of individual listing (36 CFR 67) has been requested.
___ previously listed in the National Register
previously determined eligible by the National Register
___ designated a National Historic Landmark
___ recorded by Historic American Buildings Survey # __________
___ recorded by Historic American Engineering Record #
Primary Location of Additional Data
X State Historic Preservation Office
___ Other State agency
X Federal agency
___ Local government
Name of repository: Maine SHPO office; National Archives; National Maritime Initiative, National Park Service; U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, Historian's Office, Washington, D.C.
10. Geographical Data
Acreage of Property: 7 acres
USGS Quadrangle: Boothbay Harbor, ME
UTM References: Zone Easting Northing
19 447629 4847380
Verbal Boundary Description:
The boundary is the entire island, which consists of approximately 7 acres.
This is the original boundary, which encompasses the entire property of the light station.
11. Form Prepared By
name/title: Ralph Eshelman, consultant under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Lighthouse Society
Edited and revised by Jennifer Perunko, NCSHPO Consultant, National Maritime Initiative, National Park Service
organization: National Park Service National Maritime Initiative
date: September 15, 1998 & July 2002
street & number: National Park Service (NRHE--2280), 1849 C St., NW, Room NC400
city or town: Washington state: DC zip code: 20240
(Complete this item at the request of the SHPO or FPO.)
name: U.S. Coast Guard, First District
street & number: 408 Atlantic Ave.
city or town: Boston state: MA zip code: 02110
1 The following description and associated photographs were reviewed in July 2002 by a US Coast Guard Aid to Navigation team responsible for the property. A document verifying that the description and associated photographs reflect the current condition of the property is on file with the Office of Civil Engineering, US Coast Guard Headquarters, Washington, DC.
2 U.S. Lighthouse Board, Annual Report 1893, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
3 Much of this narrative is derived from a site visit to Cuckolds Light Station on September 2, 1998, by Ralph Eshelman, consultant to the National Maritime Initiative Office, National Register, History, and Education Programs, National Park Service, Washington; and from U.S. Lighthouse Board Annual Reports. It should be noted that new construction and alterations mentioned in the reports may date from the current year of the report or prior year of the report.
4 Much of this narrative is derived from a site visit to Cuckolds Light Station on September 2, 1998, by Ralph Eshelman, consultant to the National Maritime Initiative Office, National Register, History, and Education Programs, National Park Service, Washington; and from U.S. Lighthouse Board Annual Reports. It should be noted that new construction and alterations mentioned in the reports may date from the current year or prior year of the report.
5 Much of this information was obtained from photographs and from U.S. Lighthouse Board Annual Reports, copies in the Cuckolds Light Station inventory file at the National Maritime Initiative office, National Register, History, and Education Programs, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
6 U.S. Lighthouse Board Annual Report, 1888, p. 34; and photograph from U.S. Coast Guard Historians Office, Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; copy in Cuckolds Light file, National Maritime Initiative, National Register, History, and Education Programs, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
7 Lighthouse Board, Annual Report, 1907.
8 Lighthouse Board, Annual Report 1901 and 1902.
9 Photograph dated January 1931 by R. G. Smith from U.S. Coast Guard Historians Office, Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; copy in Cuckolds Light file, National Maritime Initiative, National Register, History, and Education Programs, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
10 Lighthouse Board, Annual Report 1897; and photograph dated August 1951 from U.S. Coast Guard Historians Office, Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; copy in Cuckolds Light file, National Maritime Initiative, National Register, History, and Education Programs, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
11 Much of this narrative is derived from U. S. Lighthouse Board Annual Reports; copies of which are in the Cuckolds Light Station inventory file, National Maritime Initiative, National Register, History, and Education Programs, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
12 Lighthouse Board, Annual Report for 1895, 1897, 1898, 1901, 1902, 1904 and 1907.
13 Lighthouse Board, Annual Report for 1901, p. 53; 1902, p. 54; 1904, p. 29; 1905, p. 25; 1906, p. 31; and 1907 p. 35.
14 Light List including Fog Signals, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, 1933, U.S. Department of Commerce, Lighthouse Service, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1933, pp. 18 and 19; and Light List Volume I Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, from St. Croix River, Maine, to Little River, South Carolina, First, Third, and Fifth Coast Guard Districts, CG-158, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1971, p. 61.
15 Questionnaire Covering Real Estate Owned by The United States for The Cuckolds Light Station, Cape Newagan, Maine, dated February 7, 1930 by C. E. Sherman, Superintendent of Lighthouses, copy in Cuckolds Light file, National Maritime Initiative, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.; Lighthouse Board, Annual Report for 1907; and Light List including Fog Signals, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, 1933, U.S. Department of Commerce, Lighthouse Service, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1933, pp. 18 and 19.
16 Light List Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, St. Croix River, Maine, to the Rio Grande including the U.S. West Indian Islands, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1946, pp. 34-35; Light List Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, St. Croix River, Maine, to the Rio Grande including the U.S. West Indian Islands, CG-158, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1951, pp. 36-37; Light List Volume I Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, from St. Croix River, Maine, to Little River, South Carolina, First, Third, and Fifth Coast Guard Districts, CG-158, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1971, p. 61; and Light List Volume I Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, from St. Croix River, Maine, to Ocean City Inlet, Maryland, First, Third, and Fifth Coast Guard Districts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1987, p. 55.
17 Edward Rowe Snow, Famous New England Lighthouses, Yankee Publishing Company, Boston, Massachusetts, 1945, p. 147.
18 Robert Thayer Sterling, Lighthouses of the Maine Coast and the Men Who Keep Them, Stephen Daye Press, Brattleboro, Vermont, 1935, p. 138.
19 The History of The Cuckolds Light Station, no author, or date giver, from Cuckolds file, U.S. Coast Guard Historians Office, copy in Cuckolds Light file, National Maritime Initiative, National Register, History, and Education Programs, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.; and Clifford, p. 91.
20 Sterling, pp. 138 and 224.